Project description:Ceramidases are a group of enzymes that catalyse hydrolysis of ceramides to generate fatty acid and sphingosine. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of the rice small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus neutral ceramidase (nCDase), LsnCer. LsnCer was identified by sequencing the transcriptome of L. striatellus and is a protein of 717 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 79.3?kDa. Similarly to other known nCDases, the optimum pH for LsnCer is 8.0 and the optimum temperature is 37?°C for its in vitro activity. LsnCer activity is inhibited by Zn(2+) significantly and Fe(2+) slightly. LsnCer has broad substrate specificity with a preference for ceramides with a medium acyl-chain or a monounsaturated long acyl-chain. Infection with rice strip virus (RSV) or treatment with insecticides significantly increased LsnCer mRNA expression and its enzymatic activity in L.?striatellus. These results suggest that LsnCer is a bona fide?nCDase that may have a role in adaption of L.?striatellus to environmental stresses.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that play important roles in various biological processes. This study examined microRNA profiles of Laodelphax striatellus using the small RNA libraries derived from virus free (VF) and rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) infected (RB) insects. A total of 59 mature miRNAs (46 miRNA families) were identified as conserved insect miRNAs in both VF and RB libraries. Among these conserved miRNAs, 24 were derived from the two arms of 12 miRNA precursors. Nine conserved L. striatellus miRNAs were up-regulated and 12 were down-regulated in response to RBSDV infection. In addition, a total of 20 potential novel miRNA candidates were predicted in the VF and RB libraries. The miRNA transcriptome profiles and the identification of L. striatellus miRNAs differentially expressed in response to RBSDV infection will contribute to future studies to elucidate the complex miRNA-mediated regulatory network activated by pathogen challenge in insect vectors.
Project description:RNA interference (RNAi) has attracted attention as a promising approach to control plant viruses in their insect vectors. In the present study, to suppress replication of the rice stripe virus (RSV) in its vector, Laodelphax striatellus, using RNAi, dsRNAs against L. striatellus genes that are strongly upregulated upon RSV infection were delivered through a rice leaf-mediated method. RNAi-based silencing of peroxiredoxin, cathepsin B, and cytochrome P450 resulted in significant down regulation of the NS3 gene of RSV, achieving a transcriptional reduction greater than 73.6% at a concentration of 100 ng/?l and, possibly compromising viral replication. L. striatellus genes might play crucial roles in the transmission of RSV; transcriptional silencing of these genes could suppress viral replication in L. striatellus. These results suggest effective RNAi-based approaches for controlling RSV and provide insight into RSV-L. striatellus interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) is an important agricultural pest that not only damages rice plants by sap-sucking, but also acts as a vector that transmits rice stripe virus (RSV), which can cause even more serious yield loss. Despite being a model organism for studying entomology, population biology, plant protection, molecular interactions among plants, viruses and insects, only a few genomic sequences are available for this species. To investigate its transcriptome and determine the differences between viruliferous and naïve L. striatellus, we employed 454-FLX high-throughput pyrosequencing to generate EST databases of this insect. RESULTS: We obtained 201,281 and 218,681 high-quality reads from viruliferous and naïve L. striatellus, respectively, with an average read length as 230 bp. These reads were assembled into contigs and two EST databases were generated. When all reads were combined, 16,885 contigs and 24,607 singletons (a total of 41,492 unigenes) were obtained, which represents a transcriptome of the insect. BlastX search against the NCBI-NR database revealed that only 6,873 (16.6%) of these unigenes have significant matches. Comparison of the distribution of GO classification among viruliferous, naïve, and combined EST databases indicated that these libraries are broadly representative of the L. striatellus transcriptomes. Functionally diverse transcripts from RSV, endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia and yeast-like symbiotes were identified, which reflects the possible lifestyles of these microbial symbionts that live in the cells of the host insect. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that L. striatellus encodes similar innate immunity regulatory systems as other insects, such as RNA interference, JAK/STAT and partial Imd cascades, which might be involved in defense against viral infection. In addition, we determined the differences in gene expression between vector and naïve samples, which generated a list of candidate genes that are potentially involved in the symbiosis of L. striatellus and RSV. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, the present study is the first description of a genomic project for L. striatellus. The identification of transcripts from RSV, Wolbachia, yeast-like symbiotes and genes abundantly expressed in viruliferous insect, provided a starting-point for investigating the molecular basis of symbiosis among these organisms.
Project description:Most living organisms have developed internal circadian clocks to anticipate the daily environmental changes. The circadian clocks are composed of several transcriptional-translational feedback loops, in which cryptochromes (CRYs) serve as critical elements. In insects, some CRYs act as photopigments to control circadian photoentrainment, while the others act as transcriptional regulators. We cloned and characterized two cryptochrome genes, the Drosophila-like (lscry1) and vertebrate-like (lscry2) genes, in a rice pest Laodelphax striatellus. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that lscry1 and lscry2 expressed ubiquitously from nymph to adult stages as well as in different tissues. The transcript levels of lscry2 fluctuated in a circadian manner. Constant light led to arrhythmic locomotor activities in L. striatellus. It also inhibited the mRNA oscillation of lscry2 and promoted the transcription of lscry1. Knockdown of lscry1 or lscry2 by RNA interference (RNAi) reduced the rhythmicity of L. striatellus in constant darkness, but not in light dark cycles. These results suggested that lscry1 and lscry2 were putative circadian clock genes of L. striatellus, involved in the regulation of locomotor rhythms.
Project description:Rice stripe virus (RSV), the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, transmits by the feeding behavior of small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus. To investigate the interactions between the virus and vector insect, total RNA was extracted from RSV-viruliferous SBPH (RVLS) and non-viruliferous SBPH (NVLS) adults to construct expressed sequence tag databases for comparative transcriptome analysis. Over 30 million bases were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing to construct 1,538 and 953 of isotigs from the mRNA of RVLS and NVLS, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) analysis demonstrated that both libraries have similar GO structures, however, the gene expression pattern analysis revealed that 17.8% and 16.8% of isotigs were up- and down-regulated significantly in the RVLS, respectively. These RSV-dependently regulated genes possibly have important roles in the physiology of SBPH, transmission of RSV, and RSV and SBPH interaction.
Project description:Sphingolipids and their metabolites have been implicated in viral infection and replication in mammal cells but how their metabolizing enzymes in the host are regulated by viruses remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of 12 sphingolipid genes and their regulation by Rice stripe virus in the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén), a serious pest of rice throughout eastern Asia. According to protein sequence similarity, we identified 12 sphingolipid enzyme genes in L. striatellus. By comparing their mRNA levels in viruliferous versus nonviruliferous L. striatellus at different life stages by qPCR, we found that RSV infection upregulated six genes (LsCGT1, LsNAGA1, LsSGPP, LsSMPD4, LsSMS, and LsSPT) in most stages of L. striatellus Especially, four genes (LsCGT1, LsSMPD2, LsNAGA1, and LsSMS) and another three genes (LsNAGA1, LsSGPP, and LsSMS) were significantly upregulated in viruliferous third-instar and fourth-instar nymphs, respectively. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that RSV infection increased the levels of various ceramides, such as Cer18:0, Cer20:0, and Cer22:0 species, in third and fourth instar L. striatellus nymphs. Together, these results demonstrate that RSV infection alters the transcript levels of various sphingolipid enzymes and the contents of sphingolipids in L. striatellus, indicating that sphingolipids may be important for RSV infection or replication in L. striatellus.