Project description:Nursing homes represent a unique and important methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) reservoir. Not only are strains imported from hospitals and the community, strains can be transported back into these settings from nursing homes. Since MRSA bacteria are prevalent in nursing homes and yet relatively poorly studied in this setting, a multicenter, regional assessment of the frequency and diversity of MRSA in the nursing home reservoir was carried out and compared to that of the MRSA from hospitals in the same region. The prospective study collected MRSA from nasal swabbing of residents of 26 nursing homes in Orange County, California, and characterized each isolate by spa typing. A total of 837 MRSA isolates were collected from the nursing homes. Estimates of admission prevalence and point prevalence of MRSA were 16% and 26%, respectively. The spa type genetic diversity was heterogeneous between nursing homes and significantly higher overall (77%) than the diversity in Orange County hospitals (72%). MRSA burden in nursing homes appears largely due to importation from hospitals. As seen in Orange County hospitals, USA300 (sequence type 8 [ST8]/t008), USA100 (ST5/t002), and a USA100 variant (ST5/t242) were the dominant MRSA clones in Orange County nursing homes, representing 83% of all isolates, although the USA100 variant was predominant in nursing homes, whereas USA300 was predominant in hospitals. Control strategies tailored to the complex problem of MRSA transmission and infection in nursing homes are needed in order to minimize the impact of this unique reservoir on the overall regional MRSA burden.
Project description:There is a need for a regional assessment of the frequency and diversity of MRSA to determine major circulating clones and the extent to which community and healthcare MRSA reservoirs have mixed. We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients in Orange County, California, systematically collecting clinical MRSA isolates from 30 hospitals, to assess MRSA diversity and distribution. All isolates were characterized by spa typing, with selective PFGE and MLST to relate spa types with major MRSA clones. We collected 2,246 MRSA isolates from hospital inpatients. This translated to 91/10,000 inpatients with MRSA and an Orange County population estimate of MRSA inpatient clinical cultures of 86/100,000 people. spa type genetic diversity was heterogeneous between hospitals, and relatively high overall (72%). USA300 (t008/ST8), USA100 (t002/ST5) and a previously reported USA100 variant (t242/ST5) were the dominant clones across all Orange County hospitals, representing 83% of isolates. Fifteen hospitals isolated more t008 (USA300) isolates than t002/242 (USA100) isolates, and 12 hospitals isolated more t242 isolates than t002 isolates. The majority of isolates were imported into hospitals. Community-based infection control strategies may still be helpful in stemming the influx of traditionally community-associated strains, particularly USA300, into the healthcare setting.
Project description:Rates of hospital-acquired infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are increasingly being used as indicators for quality of hospital hygiene. There has been much effort on understanding the transmission process at the hospital level; however, interhospital population-based transmission remains poorly defined. We evaluated whether the proportion of shared patients between hospitals was correlated with genetic similarity of MRSA strains from those hospitals. Using data collected from 30 of 32 hospitals in Orange County, California, multivariate linear regression showed that for each twofold increase in the proportion of patients shared between 2 hospitals, there was a 7.7% reduction in genetic heterogeneity between the hospitals' MRSA populations (permutation P value = 0.0356). Pairs of hospitals that both served adults had more similar MRSA populations than pairs including a pediatric hospital. These findings suggest that concerted efforts among hospitals that share large numbers of patients may be synergistic to prevent MRSA transmission.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most common healthcare-associated pathogens. To examine the role of inter-hospital patient sharing on MRSA transmission, a previous study collected 2,214 samples from 30 hospitals in Orange County, California and showed by spa typing that genetic differentiation decreased significantly with increased patient sharing. In the current study, we focused on the 986 samples with spa type t008 from the same population. METHODS:We used genome sequencing to determine the effect of patient sharing on genetic differentiation between hospitals. Genetic differentiation was measured by between-hospital genetic diversity, F ST , and the proportion of nearly identical isolates between hospitals. RESULTS:Surprisingly, we found very similar genetic diversity within and between hospitals, and no significant association between patient sharing and genetic differentiation measured by F ST . However, in contrast to F ST , there was a significant association between patient sharing and the proportion of nearly identical isolates between hospitals. We propose that the proportion of nearly identical isolates is more powerful at determining transmission dynamics than traditional estimators of genetic differentiation (F ST ) when gene flow between populations is high, since it is more responsive to recent transmission events. Our hypothesis was supported by the results from coalescent simulations. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggested that there was a high level of gene flow between hospitals facilitated by patient sharing, and that the proportion of nearly identical isolates is more sensitive to population structure than F ST when gene flow is high.