Project description:USA100 strains are significant contributors to the overall burden of health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Strain 209 is a representative MRSA isolate that serves as a model organism for agr type II studies and USA100 virulence assessments. We present a draft genome sequence of this strain.
Project description:In the United States, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with the USA300 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type causes most community-associated MRSA infections and is an increasingly common cause of health care-associated MRSA infections. USA300 probably emerged during the early 1990s. To assess the spatiotemporal diffusion of USA300 MRSA and USA100 MRSA throughout the United States, we systematically reviewed 354 articles for data on 33,543 isolates, of which 8,092 were classified as USA300 and 2,595 as USA100. Using the biomedical literature as a proxy for USA300 prevalence among genotyped MRSA samples, we found that USA300 was isolated during 2000 in several states, including California, Texas, and midwestern states. The geographic mean center of USA300 MRSA then shifted eastward from 2000 to 2013. Analyzing genotyping studies enabled us to track the emergence of a new, successful MRSA type in space and time across the country.
Project description:Nursing home residents are frequently colonized with various strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but the intra-facility dynamics of strain-specific MRSA remains poorly understood. We aimed at identifying and quantifying the associations between acquisition and carriage of MRSA strains and their potential risk factors in community nursing homes using mathematical modeling.The data was collected during a longitudinal MRSA surveillance study in six nursing homes in South Central Wisconsin. MRSA cultures were obtained from subjects every 3 months for up to one year. MRSA isolates were subsequently strain-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and their genetic similarity was established based on the Dice coefficients. Bayesian network analysis, logistic regression and elastic net were used to quantify the associations between acquisition and carriage of MRSA strains discriminated at 80% and 95% strain similarity thresholds and potentially modifiable resident characteristics including previous antibiotic exposure, comorbidity, medical devices, chronic wounds, functional and cognitive status and recent hospitalizations.Absence of severe cognitive impairment as well as presence of a wound, device and severe comorbidity was associated with elevated probability of USA100 carriage although there was a variation based on the combination of those risk factors. Residents with severe comorbidity and cognitive status and presence of device and wound were identified as certain carriers of USA100 in our sample. Residents with a chronic wound were more likely to carry USA100 MRSA (OR?=?2.77, 95% CI?=?1.37-5.87). Functional status was identified as an important determinant of carriage of USA100 and USA300 strains. Comorbidity and cognitive status were the two factors associated with carriage of all clonal groups in the study (USA100, USA300 and USA1200).The combination of Bayesian network analysis, logistic regression and elastic net can be used to identify associations between acquisition and carriage of MRSA strains and their potential risk factors in the face of scarce data. The revealed associations may be used to generate hypothesis for further study of determinants of acquisition and carriage of selected MRSA subtypes and to better inform infection control efforts in community nursing homes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The evolving antibiotic-resistant behavior of health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) USA100 strains are of major concern. They are resistant to a broad class of antibiotics such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and many more.<h4>Findings</h4>The selection of appropriate antibiotic susceptibility examination media is very important. Thus, we use bacteriological (cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth) as well as physiological (R10LB) media to determine the effect of vancomycin on USA100 strains. The study includes the profiling behavior of HA-MRSA USA100 D592 and D712 strains in the presence of vancomycin through various high-throughput assays. The US100 D592 and D712 strains were characterized at sub-inhibitory concentrations through growth curves, RNA sequencing, bacterial cytological profiling, and exo-metabolomics high throughput experiments.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The study reveals the vancomycin resistance behavior of HA-MRSA USA100 strains in dual media conditions using wide-ranging experiments.
Project description:There is a need for a regional assessment of the frequency and diversity of MRSA to determine major circulating clones and the extent to which community and healthcare MRSA reservoirs have mixed. We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients in Orange County, California, systematically collecting clinical MRSA isolates from 30 hospitals, to assess MRSA diversity and distribution. All isolates were characterized by spa typing, with selective PFGE and MLST to relate spa types with major MRSA clones. We collected 2,246 MRSA isolates from hospital inpatients. This translated to 91/10,000 inpatients with MRSA and an Orange County population estimate of MRSA inpatient clinical cultures of 86/100,000 people. spa type genetic diversity was heterogeneous between hospitals, and relatively high overall (72%). USA300 (t008/ST8), USA100 (t002/ST5) and a previously reported USA100 variant (t242/ST5) were the dominant clones across all Orange County hospitals, representing 83% of isolates. Fifteen hospitals isolated more t008 (USA300) isolates than t002/242 (USA100) isolates, and 12 hospitals isolated more t242 isolates than t002 isolates. The majority of isolates were imported into hospitals. Community-based infection control strategies may still be helpful in stemming the influx of traditionally community-associated strains, particularly USA300, into the healthcare setting.
Project description:We report the genome sequence of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain, isolated from a surgical intensive care unit. This completely closed genome of a USA100 isolate contains a major chromosome and a plasmid and will serve as a reference genome for genetic analysis of MRSA strains.
Project description:As concerns arise that the vancomycin MIC of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) could be increased by concurrent colistin administration, we evaluated the effect of colistin on vancomycin efficacy against MRSA via in vitro and in vivo studies. Among MRSA blood isolates collected in a tertiary-care hospital, we selected representative strains from community-associated MRSA strains (CA-MRSA; ST72-MRSA-SCCmec IV) and hospital-acquired MRSA strains (HA-MRSA; ST5-MRSA-SCCmec II). USA CA-MRSA (USA300), HA-MRSA (USA100), N315 (New York/Japan clone), and a MRSA standard strain (ATCC 43300) were used for comparison. We performed checkerboard assays to identify changes in the vancomycin MIC of MRSA following colistin exposure and evaluated the effect of a vancomycin-colistin combination using time-kill assays. We also assessed the in vivo antagonistic effect by administering vancomycin, colistin, and a combination of these two in a neutropenic murine thigh infection model. In the checkerboard assays, vancomycin MICs of all MRSA strains except N315 were increased by from 0.25 to 0.75??g/ml following colistin exposure. However, the time-kill assays indicated antagonism only against ST5-MRSA and USA100, when the vancomycin concentration was twice the MIC. In the murine thigh infection model with ST5-MRSA and USA100, vancomycin monotherapy reduced the number of CFU/muscle >1 log10 compared to a combination treatment after 24?h in ST5-MRSA, indicating an antagonistic effect of colistin on vancomycin treatment. This study suggests that exposure to colistin may reduce the susceptibility to vancomycin of certain MRSA strains. Combination therapy with vancomycin and colistin for multidrug-resistant pathogens might result in treatment failure for concurrent MRSA infection.
Project description:Nursing homes represent a unique and important methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) reservoir. Not only are strains imported from hospitals and the community, strains can be transported back into these settings from nursing homes. Since MRSA bacteria are prevalent in nursing homes and yet relatively poorly studied in this setting, a multicenter, regional assessment of the frequency and diversity of MRSA in the nursing home reservoir was carried out and compared to that of the MRSA from hospitals in the same region. The prospective study collected MRSA from nasal swabbing of residents of 26 nursing homes in Orange County, California, and characterized each isolate by spa typing. A total of 837 MRSA isolates were collected from the nursing homes. Estimates of admission prevalence and point prevalence of MRSA were 16% and 26%, respectively. The spa type genetic diversity was heterogeneous between nursing homes and significantly higher overall (77%) than the diversity in Orange County hospitals (72%). MRSA burden in nursing homes appears largely due to importation from hospitals. As seen in Orange County hospitals, USA300 (sequence type 8 [ST8]/t008), USA100 (ST5/t002), and a USA100 variant (ST5/t242) were the dominant MRSA clones in Orange County nursing homes, representing 83% of all isolates, although the USA100 variant was predominant in nursing homes, whereas USA300 was predominant in hospitals. Control strategies tailored to the complex problem of MRSA transmission and infection in nursing homes are needed in order to minimize the impact of this unique reservoir on the overall regional MRSA burden.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pulsed-field type (PFT) USA300 causes skin and soft tissue infections in military recruits and invasive disease in hospitals. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is used to reduce MRSA colonization and infection. The impact of CHG on the molecular epidemiology of MRSA is not known.To evaluate the impact of 2% CHG-impregnated cloths on the molecular epidemiology of MRSA colonization.Cluster-randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.Marine Officer Candidate School, Quantico, Virginia, in 2007.Military recruits.Thrice-weekly application of CHG-impregnated or control (Comfort Bath; Sage) cloths over the entire body.Baseline and serial (every 2 weeks) nasal and/or axillary swab samples were assessed for MRSA colonization. Molecular analysis was performed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.During training, 77 subjects (4.9%) acquired MRSA, 26 (3.3%) in the CHG group and 51 (6.5%) in the control group (P=.004). When analyzed for PFT, 24 subjects (3.1%) in the control group but only 6 subjects (0.8%) in the CHG group (P=.001) had USA300. Of the 167 colonizing isolates recovered from 77 subjects, 99 were recovered from the control group, including USA300 (40.4%), USA800 (38.4%), USA1000 (12.1%), and USA100 (6.1%), and 68 were recovered from the CHG group, including USA800 (51.5%), USA100 (23.5%), and USA300 (13.2%).CHG decreased the transmission of MRSA--more specifically, USA300--among military recruits. In addition, USA300 and USA800 outcompeted other MRSA PFTs at incident colonization. Future studies should evaluate the broad-based use of CHG to decrease transmission of USA300 in hospital settings.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a common causative agent of bovine mastitis in dairy herds. The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals as well as the community is a significant and costly public health concern. S. aureus-related bovine mastitis is a common reason for therapeutic and/or prophylactic use of antibiotics on dairy farms. In this study, herd prevalence of S. aureus, including MRSA, was estimated from bulk tank milk (BTM) from Minnesota farms. A total of 150 pooled BTM samples from 50 farms, collected over 3 seasons (spring, summer, and fall of 2009), were assessed. Herd prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was 84%, while MRSA herd prevalence was 4%. A total of 93 MSSA isolates and 2 MRSA isolates were recovered from 150 BTM samples. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus isolates showed pansusceptibility in 54 isolates, resistance to a single antibiotic class in 21 isolates, resistance to two antibiotic classes in 13 isolates, and resistance to ?3 antibiotics classes and thus multidrug resistance in 5 isolates. The two MRSA isolates displayed resistance to ?-lactams, cephalosporins, and lincosamides and were multiresistant. Staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) typing identified spa types t529 and t034 most frequently among methicillin-susceptible isolates, while t121 was observed in MRSA isolates. Seven isolates, including the two MRSA isolates, produced staphylococcal enterotoxins B, C, D, and E on overnight culture. MRSA isolates were further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of the 2 MRSA isolates, one had a composite genotype profile of MLST ST 5-PFGE USA100-unknown spa type, which has been reported among hospital-associated MRSA isolates, while the second isolate carried the MLST ST 8-PFGE USA300-spa type t121 genotype, commonly identified among community-associated MRSA isolates. These results suggest that MRSA genotypes associated with hospitals and community can be isolated from milk at very low rates.