Project description:To profile changes in gene expression in human endothelial cells in response to VEGF-A165 and phenotypic changes during vascular network formation in vitro 16 samples of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were analysized, four distinct biological samples were used in each condition. The four conditions included: VEGF treatment in Matrigel culture, Mock treatment in Matrigel culture, VEGF treatment in 2D monolayer, and mock treatment in 2D monolayer.
Project description:A defined protocol for efficiently deriving endothelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells was established and vascular morphogenesis was used as a model system to understand how synthetic hydrogels influence global biological function compared with common 2D and 3D culture platforms. RNA sequencing demonstrated that gene expression profiles were similar for endothelial cells and pericytes cocultured in polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels or Matrigel, while monoculture comparisons identified distinct vascular signatures for each cell type. Endothelial cells cultured on tissue-culture polystyrene adopted a proliferative phenotype compared with cells cultured on or encapsulated in PEG hydrogels. The proliferative phenotype correlated to increased FAK-ERK activity, and knockdown or inhibition of ERK signaling reduced proliferation and expression for cell-cycle genes while increasing expression for "3D-like" vasculature development genes. Our results provide insight into the influence of 2D and 3D culture formats on global biological processes that regulate cell function.
Project description:Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent studies suggest that adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used as a potential source for cardiovascular tissue engineering due to their ability to differentiate along the cardiovascular lineage and to adopt a proangiogenic phenotype. To understand better ASCs' biology, we used a novel 3D culture device. ASCs' and b.END-3 endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and vessel morphogenesis were significantly enhanced compared to 2D culturing techniques. ASCs were isolated from inguinal fat pads of 6-week-old GFP+/BLI+ mice. Early passage ASCs cells (P3-P4), PKH26-labeled murine b.END-3 cells or a co-culture of ASCs and b.END-3 cells were seeded at a density of 1 × 10(5) on three different surface configurations: (a) a 2D surface of tissue culture plastic, (b) Matrigel, and (c) a highly porous 3D scaffold fabricated from inert polystyrene. VEGF expression, cell proliferation, and tubulization, were assessed using optical microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, 3D confocal microscopy, and SEM imaging (n = 6). Increased VEGF levels were seen in conditioned media harvested from co-cultures of ASCs and b.END-3 on either Matrigel or a 3D matrix. Fluorescence, confocal, SEM, bioluminescence revealed improved cell, proliferation, and tubule formation for cells seeded on the 3D polystyrene matrix. Collectively, these data demonstrate that co-culturing ASCs with endothelial cells in a 3D matrix environment enable us to generate prevascularized tissue-engineered constructs. This can potentially help us to surpass the tissue thickness limitations faced by the tissue engineering community today.
Project description:The proliferative compartment of the colonic epithelium in vivo is located in the basal crypt where colonic stem cells and transit-amplifying cells reside and fuel the rapid renewal of non-proliferative epithelial cells as they migrate toward the gut lumen. To mimic this tissue polarity, microstructures composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwells and Matrigel micropockets were used to guide a combined 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) hybrid culture of primary crypts isolated from the murine colon. The 2D and 3D culture of crypts on a planar PDMS surface was first investigated in terms of cell proliferation and stem cell activity. 3D culture of crypts with overlaid Matrigel generated enclosed, but highly proliferative spheroids (termed colonoids). 2D culture of crypts produced a spreading monolayer of cells, which were non-proliferative. A combined 2D/3D hybrid culture was generated in a PDMS microwell platform on which crypts were loaded by centrifugation into microwells (diameter = 150 ?m, depth = 150 ?m) followed by addition of Matrigel that formed micropockets locking the crypts within the microwells. Embedded crypts first underwent 3D expansion inside the wells. After the cells filled the microwells, they migrated onto the surrounding surface forming a 2D monolayer in the array regions without Matrigel. This unique 2D/3D hybrid culture generated a continuous, millimeter-scale colonic epithelial tissue in vitro, which resembled the polarized architecture (i.e. distinct proliferative and non-proliferative zones) and geometry of the colonic epithelium in vivo. This work initiates the construction of a "colon-on-a-chip" using primary cells/tissues with the ultimate goal of producing the physiologic structure and organ-level function of the colon.
Project description:The perivascular localization of stem cell (SC) niches suggests the presence of a vascular niche. We aimed to determine the angiogenesis potential of limbal niche cells (NCs).Human limbal NCs were isolated and serially passaged on plastic or coated Matrigel in embryonic SC medium containing BFGF and leukemia inhibitory factor before being reseeded in 3D Matrigel. Expression of angiogenesis markers was assessed by RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence staining. Their angiogenesis potential was measured by differentiation into vascular endothelial cells and by supporting vascular tube network formed by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. Their support of limbal epithelial progenitor cells (LEPC) was examined in sphere growth formed by reunion in 3D Matrigel.On plastic, limbal NC could be cultured only up to four passages before turning into myofibroblasts. In contrast, on coated Matrigel, they could be expanded for up to 12 passages with upregulation of markers suggestive of angiogenesis progenitors when reseeded in 3D Matrigel because they could differentiate into vascular endothelial cells and pericytes stabilizing the tube network formed by HUVEC. Although both expanded limbal NCs and HUVEC rejoined with LEPC to form spheres to upregulate expression of ?Np63?, CK15, and CEBP?, the former but not the latter abolished expression of CK12 keratin.Human limbal NCs continuously expanded on the basement membrane differentiate into angiogenesis progenitors that prevent differentiation of LEPC/SCs. They may partake in formation of the vascular niche and contribute to angiogenesis during wound healing.
Project description:MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in 2D and Matrigel based 3D culture for 4 days. Total DNA was extracted. Bisulfite treatment and BS-SEQ were carried out to profile global cytosine methylation in both culture conditions. Overall design: MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in 2D and Matrigel based 3D culture for 4 days. Total DNA was extracted. Bisulfite treatment and BS-SEQ were carried out to profile global cytosine methylation in both culture conditions.
Project description:Angiogenesis is an effective target in cancer control. The antiangiogenic efficacy and associated mechanisms of acacetin, a plant flavone, are poorly known. In the present study, acacetin inhibited growth and survival (up to 92%; P < 0.001), and capillary-like tube formation on Matrigel (up to 98%; P < 0.001) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in regular condition, as well as VEGF-induced and tumor cells conditioned medium-stimulated growth conditions. It caused retraction and disintegration of preformed capillary networks (up to 91%; P < 0.001). HUVEC migration and invasion were suppressed by 68% to 100% (P < 0.001). Acacetin inhibited Stat-1 (Tyr701) and Stat-3 (Tyr705) phosphorylation, and downregulated proangiogenic factors including VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in HUVEC. It also suppressed nuclear localization of pStat-3 (Tyr705). Acacetin strongly inhibited capillary sprouting and networking from rat aortic rings and fertilized chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane (CAM; ?71%; P < 0.001). Furthermore, it suppressed angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs implanted in Swiss albino mice. Acacetin also inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat-1 and -3, and expression of VEGF in cancer cells. Overall, acacetin inhibits Stat signaling and suppresses angiogenesis in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, and therefore, it could be a potential agent to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and growth.
Project description:Angiogenesis plays a critical role in many diseases, including macular degeneration. At present, the pathological mechanisms remain unclear while appropriate models dissecting regulation of angiogenic processes are lacking. We propose an in vitro angiogenesis process and test it by examining the co-culture of human retinal pigmental epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) inside a microfluidic device. From characterisation of the APRE-19 monoculture, the tight junction protein (ZO-1) was found on the cells cultured in the microfluidic device but changes in the medium conditions did not affect the integrity of monolayers found in the permeability tests. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion was elevated under low glucose and hypoxia conditions compared to the control. After confirming the angiogenic ability of HUVEC, the cell-cell interactions were analyzed under lowered glucose medium and chemical hypoxia by exposing ARPE-19 cells to cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2). Heterotypic interactions between ARPE-19 and HUVEC were observed, but proliferation of HUVEC was hindered once the monolayer of ARPE-19 started breaking down. The above characterisations showed that alterations in glucose concentration and/or oxygen level as induced by chemical hypoxia causes elevations in VEGF produced in ARPE-19 which in turn affected directional growth of HUVEC.
Project description:Endothelial cells rapidly respond to changes in oxygen homeostasis by regulating gene expression. Regulator of G protein signaling 5 (RGS5) is a negative regulator of G protein-mediated signaling that is strongly expressed in vessels during angiogenesis; however, the role of RGS5 in hypoxia has not been fully understood. Under hypoxic conditions, we found that the expression of RGS5, but not other RGS, was induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). RGS5 mRNA was increased when HUVEC were incubated with chemicals that stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), whereas hypoxia-stimulated RGS5 promoter activity was absent in HIF-1beta(-/-) cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is regulated by HIF-1, did not appear to be involved in hypoxia-induced RGS5 expression; however, VEGF-mediated activation of p38 but not ERK1/2 was increased by RGS5. Overexpression of RGS5 in HUVEC exhibited a reduced growth rate without affecting the cell proliferation. Annexin V assay revealed that RGS5 induced apoptosis with significantly increased activation of caspase-3 and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Small interfering RNA-specific for RGS5, caspase-3 inhibitor, and p38 inhibitor resulted in an attenuation of RGS5-stimulated apoptosis. Matrigel assay proved that RGS5 significantly impaired the angiogenic effect of VEGF and stimulated apoptosis in vivo. We concluded that RGS5 is a novel HIF-1-dependent, hypoxia-induced gene that is involved in the induction of endothelial apoptosis. Moreover, RGS5 antagonizes the angiogenic effect of VEGF by increasing the activation of p38 signaling, suggesting that RGS5 could be an important target for apoptotic therapy.
Project description:Low level light therapy receives increasing interest in the fields of tissue regeneration and wound healing. Several in vivo studies demonstrated the positive effects of LLLT on angiogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the underlying properties in vitro by comparing the effects of light therapy by light emitting diodes of different wavelengths on endothelial cells in vitro. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with either 475?nm, 516?nm or 635?nm light. Control cells were not illuminated. 2D proliferation was quantified by manual counting. HUVEC migration was analyzed by performing a 2D wound scratch assay and a 3D bead assay. The influence of LLLT on early vasculogenic events was determined in a 3D fibrin co-culture model with adipose-derived stem cells. Stimulation with both red and green pulsed LED light significantly increased HUVEC proliferation and 3D migration. Moreover, HUVEC showed increased 2D migration potential with green light stimulation. The treatment with blue light was ineffective. Several parameters showed that green light was even more potent to stimulate proliferation and migration of endothelial cells than clinically well-established red light therapy. Further studies have to focus on intracellular mechanisms induced by different wavelengths in order to optimize this promising therapy in tissue regeneration.