Project description:A commensal in the gastrointestinal tract, Fusobacterium necrophorum is involved in the pathogenicity of abscesses, foot rot, and metritis in cattle. Here, we present the draft genomes of two Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates from the uterus of dairy cows with metritis to allow for future comparative genome studies.
Project description:Post-partum, post-sterilization tubo-ovarian abscess is a rare event. Fusobacterium necrophorum subspecies funduliforme, a normal flora found mainly in the oral cavity, appears to be the etiologic organism.In this case report, a 25-year-old Thai woman had a post-partum, post-sterilization tubo-ovarian abscess caused by the strictly anaerobic bacterium, Fusobacterium necrophorum subspecies funduliforme. Progressively severe symptoms started 3 weeks after her third vaginal delivery with a tubal sterilization on the following day. On admission, she presented with peritonitis and impending shock. An exploratory laparotomy showed a ruptured left tubo-ovarian abscess. A segment of her ileum had to be resected because of severe inflammation.Fusobacterium necrophorum subspecies funduliforme can be an etiologic organism of a ruptured tubo-ovarian abscess following tubal sterilization in a healthy host.
Project description:Human infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum usually involves F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme rather than F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum, which is a common pathogen in animals. Lemierre's syndrome, or postanginal sepsis, is the most common life-threatening manifestation. Tonsillitis is followed by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and then a septicemia with septic emboli in lungs and other sites. Recent evidence suggests that F. necrophorum can be limited to the throat and cause persistent or recurrent tonsillitis. F. necrophorum is unique among non-spore-forming anaerobes, first for its virulence and association with Lemierre's syndrome as a monomicrobial infection and second because it seems probable that it is an exogenously acquired infection. The source of infection is unclear; suggestions include acquisition from animals or human-to-human transmission. Approximately 10% of published cases are associated with infectious mononucleosis, which may facilitate invasion. Recent work suggests that underlying thrombophilia may predispose to internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis. Lemierre's syndrome was relatively common in the preantibiotic era but seemed to virtually disappear with widespread use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infection. In the last 15 years there has been a rise in incidence, possibly related to restriction in antibiotic use for sore throat.
Project description:Two isolates (F1260 and F1291) of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme were recovered from blood from patients with Lemierre's syndrome. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of these two isolates. The genomes of F1260 and F1291 comprise one chromosome with lengths of 2.29 and 2.14?Mb, respectively.
Project description:Fusobacterium necrophorum is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacterium that is a primary or secondary etiological agent in a variety of necrotic purulent infections in animals and humans. Included are diseases of cattle such as liver abscesses and foot rot, which have economically important consequences for the cattle industry. The major virulence factor of this bacterium is leukotoxin, a secreted protein of high molecular weight active against leukocytes from ruminants. The screening of a genomic DNA library with polyclonal antisera raised against native affinity-purified leukotoxin and further extension of the sequence using inverse PCR led to the cloning of the entire leukotoxin gene. The leukotoxin gene open reading frame (ORF; lktA) consists of 9,726 bp and encodes a protein of 3,241 amino acids with an overall molecular weight of 335,956. The leukotoxin does not have sequence similarity with any other bacterial leukotoxin. Five truncated overlapping polypeptides covering the whole lktA ORF were used to immunize rabbits. In Western blot assays, polyclonal antisera raised against all five truncated polypeptides recognized affinity-purified leukotoxin from F. necrophorum culture supernatant in a Western blot assay. Antisera directed against two of the five polypeptides had neutralizing activity against the toxin. The entire leukotoxin ORF was expressed in Escherichia coli. Flow-cytometric analysis showed that the recombinant leukotoxin was active against bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes and was inhibited with antiserum raised against the F. necrophorum leukotoxin. Southern blot hybridization analysis revealed different patterns of lktA hybridizing bands between isolates of the two subspecies of F. necrophorum.
Project description:Sore throat is common in primary healthcare. Aetiological studies have focused on the presence of a limited number of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a wide range of bacteria and viruses, including Fusobacterium necrophorum, in patients with pharyngotonsillitis and in asymptomatic controls. A prospective case control study was performed in primary healthcare in Kronoberg County, Sweden. Patients (n=220) aged 15 to 45 years with a suspected acute pharyngotonsillitis, and controls (n=128), were included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed for ?-hemolytic streptococci, F. necrophorum, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and 13 respiratory viruses. Serum samples were analysed for antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus. The patient history and symptoms, including Centor score, were analysed in relation to pathogens. In 155/220 (70.5%) of the patients, as compared to 26/128 (20.3%) of the controls (p <0.001), at least one microorganism was found. Group A streptococci, F. necrophorum, and influenza B virus were the three most common findings, and all significantly more common in patients than in controls (p <0.001, p 0.001, and p 0.002, respectively). Patients with F. necrophorum only (n=14) displayed a lower Centor score than patients with Group A streptococcus only (n=46), but a higher score than patients with influenza B, other viruses, or no potential pathogen (Kruskal-Wallis p <0.001). A pathogen was detected in 70% of the patients, displaying a wide range of pathogens contributing to the aetiology of pharyngotonsillitis. This study supports F. necrophorum as one of the pathogens to be considered in the aetiology of pharyngotonsillitis.
Project description:Sites of persistence of bacterial pathogens contribute to disease dynamics of bacterial diseases. Footrot is a globally important bacterial disease that reduces health and productivity of sheep. It is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus, a pathogen apparently highly specialised for feet, while Fusobacterium necrophorum, a secondary pathogen in footrot is reportedly ubiquitous on pasture. Two prospective longitudinal studies were conducted to investigate the persistence of D. nodosus and F. necrophorum in sheep feet, mouths and faeces, and in soil. Molecular tools were used to detect species, strains and communities. In contrast to the existing paradigm, F. necrophorum persisted on footrot diseased feet, and in mouths and faeces; different strains were detected in feet and mouths. D. nodosus persisted in soil and on diseased, but not healthy, feet; similar strains were detected on both healthy and diseased feet of diseased sheep. We conclude that D. nodosus and F. necrophorum depend on sheep for persistence but use different strategies to persist and spread between sheep within and between flocks. Elimination of F. necrophorum would be challenging due to faecal shedding. In contrast D. nodosus could be eliminated if all footrot-affected sheep were removed and fade out of D. nodosus occurred in the environment before re-infection of a foot.
Project description:Dichelobacter nodosus is a virulent, invasive, anaerobic bacterium that is believed to be the causative agent of ovine footrot, an infectious bacterial disease of sheep that causes lameness. Another anaerobe, Fusobacterium necrophorum, has been intimately linked with the disease occurrence and severity. Here we examine data from a longitudinal study of footrot on one UK farm, including quantitative PCR (qPCR) estimates of bacterial load of D. nodosus and F. necrophorum. The data is at foot level; all feet were monitored for five weeks assessing disease severity (healthy, interdigital dermatitis (ID), or severe footrot (SFR)) and bacterial load (number of bacteria/swab). We investigate the role of D. nodosus and F. necrophorum in the progress of the disease using a continuous-time Markov model with 12 different states characterising the foot. The transition rates between the adjacent states are the (34) model parameters, these are determined using Metropolis Hasting MCMC. Our aim is to determine the predictive relationship between past and future D. nodosus and F. necrophorum load and disease states. We demonstrate a high level of predictive accuracy at the population level for the D. nodosus model, although the dynamics of individual feet is highly stochastic. However, we note that this predictive accuracy at population level is only high in more diseased states for F. necrophorum model. This supports our hypothesis that D. nodosus load and status of the foot work in combination to give rise to severe footrot and lameness, and that D. nodosus load plays the primary role in the initiation and progression of footrot, while F. necrophorum load rather increases disease severity of SFR.