Project description:The taxonomic status and structure of Streptococcus dysgalactiae have been the object of much confusion. Bacteria belonging to this species are usually referred to as Lancefield group C or group G streptococci in clinical settings in spite of the fact that these terms lack precision and prevent recognition of the exact clinical relevance of these bacteria. The purpose of this study was to develop an improved basis for delineation and identification of the individual species of the pyogenic group of streptococci in the clinical microbiology laboratory, with a special focus on S. dysgalactiae. We critically reexamined the genetic relationships of the species S. dysgalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus canis, and Streptococcus equi, which may share Lancefield group antigens, by phylogenetic reconstruction based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and 16S rRNA gene sequences and by emm typing combined with phenotypic characterization. Analysis of concatenated sequences of seven genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished robust and coherent clusters. S. dysgalactiae consists of two separate clusters consistent with the two recognized subspecies dysgalactiae and equisimilis. Both taxa share alleles with S. pyogenes in several housekeeping genes, which invalidates identification based on single-locus sequencing. S. dysgalactiae, S. canis, and S. pyogenes constitute a closely related branch within the genus Streptococcus indicative of recent descent from a common ancestor, while S. equi is highly divergent from other species of the pyogenic group streptococci. The results provide an improved basis for identification of clinically important pyogenic group streptococci and explain the overlapping spectrum of infections caused by the species associated with humans.
Project description:Selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) is a targeted proteomics technology used to identify and quantify proteins with high sensitivity, specificity and high reproducibility. Execution of SRM-MS relies on protein-specific SRM assays, a set of experimental parameters that requires considerable effort to develop. Here we present a proteome-wide SRM assay repository for the gram-positive human pathogen group A Streptococcus. Using a multi-layered approach we generated SRM assays for 10,412 distinct group A Streptococcus peptides followed by extensive testing of the selected reaction monitoring assays in >200 different group A Streptococcus protein pools. Based on the number of SRM assay observations we created a rule-based selected reaction monitoring assay-scoring model to select the most suitable assays per protein for a given cellular compartment and bacterial state. The resource described here represents an important tool for deciphering the group A Streptococcus proteome using selected reaction monitoring and we anticipate that concepts described here can be extended to other pathogens.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus, is responsible for mild infections to life-threatening diseases. To facilitate the characterization of regulatory networks involved in the adaptation of this pathogen to its different environments and their evolution, we have determined the primary transcriptome of a serotype M1?S. pyogenes strain at single-nucleotide resolution and compared it with that of Streptococcus agalactiae, also from the pyogenic group of streptococci. RESULTS:By using a combination of differential RNA-sequencing and oriented RNA-sequencing we have identified 892 transcription start sites (TSS) and 885 promoters in the S. pyogenes M1 strain S119. 8.6% of S. pyogenes mRNAs were leaderless, among which 81% were also classified as leaderless in S. agalactiae. 26% of S. pyogenes transcript 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) were longer than 60?nt. Conservation of long 5' UTRs with S. agalactiae allowed us to predict new potential regulatory sequences. In addition, based on the mapping of 643 transcript ends in the S. pyogenes strain S119, we constructed an operon map of 401 monocistrons and 349 operons covering 81.5% of the genome. One hundred fifty-six operons and 254 monocistrons retained the same organization, despite multiple genomic reorganizations between S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae. Genomic reorganization was found to more often go along with variable promoter sequences and 5' UTR lengths. Finally, we identified 117 putative regulatory RNAs, among which nine were regulated in response to magnesium concentration. CONCLUSIONS:Our data provide insights into transcriptome evolution in pyogenic streptococci and will facilitate the analysis of genetic polymorphisms identified by comparative genomics in S. pyogenes.
Project description:Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB).