Project description:Transcriptome analysis of partially degraded and fragmented RNA samples from mus musculus gut Global gene expression profiling has shown the gut transcripts changes through administration of aspirin while probiotics strain administration beforehand attenuates the effect more than teprenone. We analyzed five groups of mice gut using the Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST platform. Array data was processed by Affymetrix Exon Array Computational Tool. No techinical replicates were performed.
Project description:Consomic (chromosome substitution) strains (CSs) represent the most recent addition to the mouse genetic resources aimed to genetically analyze complex trait loci (QTLs). In this study, we report the development of a set of 28 mouse intersubspecific CSs. In each CS, we replaced a single chromosome of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain (mostly Mus m. domesticus) with its homolog from the PWD/Ph inbred strain of the Mus m. musculus subspecies. These two progenitor subspecies diverged less than 1 million years ago and accumulated a large number of genetic differences that constitute a rich resource of genetic variation for QTL analyses. Altogether, the 18 consomic, nine subconsomic, and one conplastic strain covered all 19 autosomes, X and Y sex chromosomes, and mitochondrial DNA. Most CSs had significantly lower reproductive fitness compared with the progenitor strains. CSs homosomic for chromosomes 10 and 11, and the C57BL/6J-Chr X males, failed to reproduce and were substituted by less affected subconsomics carrying either a proximal, central, or distal part of the respective chromosome. A genome-wide scan of 965 DNA markers revealed 99.87% purity of the B6 genetic background. Thirty-three nonsynonymous substitutions were uncovered in the protein-coding regions of the mitochondrial DNA of the B6.PWD-mt conplastic strain. A pilot-phenotyping experiment project revealed a high number of variations among B6.PWD consomics.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) maintains the integrity of epithelial barriers by transporting polymeric antibodies and antigens through the epithelial mucosa into the lumen. In this study, we examined the role of pIgR in maintaining gut barrier integrity, which is important for the normal development in mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Cohorts of pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> mice and their wildtype controls were housed under Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) conditions and monitored for weight gain as an indicator of development over time. The general physiology of the gastrointestinal tract was analysed using immunohistochemistry in young (8-12?weeks of age) and aged mice (up to 18?months of age), and the observed immunopathology in pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> mice was further characterised using flow cytometry. Urinary metabolites were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which revealed changes in metabolites that correlated with age-related increase in gut permeability in pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> mice.<h4>Results</h4>We observed that pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> mice exhibited delayed growth, and this phenomenon is associated with low-grade gut inflammation that increased with ageing. The gross intraepithelial lymphocytic (IEL) infiltration characteristic of pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> mice was redefined as CD8?<sup>+</sup>??<sup>+</sup> T cells, the majority of which expressed high levels of CD103 and CD69 consistent with tissue resident memory T cells (T<sub>RM</sub>). Comparison of the urinary metabolome between pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> and wild-type mice revealed key changes in urinary biomarkers fucose, glycine and Vitamin B5, suggestive of altered mucosal permeability. A significant increase in gut permeability was confirmed by analysing the site-specific uptake of sugar probes in different parts of the intestine.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data show that loss of the secretory antibody system in mice results in enhanced accumulation of inflammatory IELs in the gut, which likely reflects ongoing inflammation in reaction to gut microbiota or food antigens, leading to delayed growth in pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> mice. We demonstrate that this leads to the presence of a unique urinary metabolome profile, which may provide a biomarker for altered gut permeability.
Project description:The composition of the mammalian gut microbiota can be influenced by a multitude of environmental variables such as diet and infections. Studies investigating the effect of these variables on gut microbiota composition often sample across multiple separate populations and habitat types. In this study we explore how variation in the gut microbiota of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) on the Isle of May, a small island off the east coast of Scotland, is associated with environmental and biological factors. Our study focuses on the effects of environmental variables, specifically trapping location and surrounding vegetation, as well as the host variables sex, age, body weight and endoparasite infection, on the gut microbiota composition across a fine spatial scale in a freely interbreeding population. We found that differences in gut microbiota composition were significantly associated with the trapping location of the host, even across this small spatial scale. Sex of the host showed a weak association with microbiota composition. Whilst sex and location could be identified as playing an important role in the compositional variation of the gut microbiota, 75% of the variation remains unexplained. Whereas other rodent studies have found associations between gut microbiota composition and age of the host or parasite infections, the present study could not clearly establish these associations. We conclude that fine spatial scales are important when considering gut microbiota composition and investigating differences among individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mus spretus diverged from Mus musculus over one million years ago. These mice are genetically and phenotypically divergent. Despite the value of utilizing M. musculus and M. spretus for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, relatively little genomic information on M. spretus exists, and most of the available sequence and polymorphic data is for one strain of M. spretus, Spret/Ei. In previous work, we mapped fifteen loci for skin cancer susceptibility using four different M. spretus by M. musculus F1 backcrosses. One locus, skin tumor susceptibility 5 (Skts5) on chromosome 12, shows strong linkage in one cross. RESULTS: To identify potential candidate genes for Skts5, we sequenced 65 named and unnamed genes and coding elements mapping to the peak linkage area in outbred spretus, Spret/EiJ, FVB/NJ, and NIH/Ola. We identified polymorphisms in 62 of 65 genes including 122 amino acid substitutions. To look for polymorphisms consistent with the linkage data, we sequenced exons with amino acid polymorphisms in two additional M. spretus strains and one additional M. musculus strain generating 40.1 kb of sequence data. Eight candidate variants were identified that fit with the linkage data. To determine the degree of variation across M. spretus, we conducted phylogenetic analyses. The relatedness of the M. spretus strains at this locus is consistent with the proximity of region of ascertainment of the ancestral mice. CONCLUSION: Our analyses suggest that, if Skts5 on chromosome 12 is representative of other regions in the genome, then published genomic data for Spret/EiJ are likely to be of high utility for genomic studies in other M. spretus strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Due to their high level of genotypic and phenotypic variability, Mus spretus strains were introduced in laboratories to investigate the genetic determinism of complex phenotypes including quantitative trait loci. Mus spretus diverged from Mus musculus around 2.5 million years ago and exhibits on average a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in every 100 base pairs when compared with any of the classical laboratory strains. A genoproteomic approach was used to assess polymorphism of the major milk proteins between SEG/Pas and C57BL/6J, two inbred strains of mice representative of Mus spretus and Mus musculus species, respectively. RESULTS: The milk protein concentration was dramatically reduced in the SEG/Pas strain by comparison with the C57BL/6J strain (34 ± 9 g/L vs. 125 ± 12 g/L, respectively). Nine major proteins were identified in both milks using RP-HPLC, bi-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-Tof mass spectrometry. Two caseins (? and ?s1) and the whey acidic protein (WAP), showed distinct chromatographic and electrophoresis behaviours. These differences were partly explained by the occurrence of amino acid substitutions and splicing variants revealed by cDNA sequencing. A total of 34 SNPs were identified in the coding and 3'untranslated regions of the SEG/Pas Csn1s1 (11), Csn2 (7) and Wap (8) genes. In addition, a 3 nucleotide deletion leading to the loss of a serine residue at position 93 was found in the SEG/Pas Wap gene. CONCLUSION: SNP frequencies found in three milk protein-encoding genes between Mus spretus and Mus musculus is twice the values previously reported at the whole genome level. However, the protein structure and post-translational modifications seem not to be affected by SNPs characterized in our study. Splicing mechanisms (cryptic splice site usage, exon skipping, error-prone junction sequence), already identified in casein genes from other species, likely explain the existence of multiple ?s1-casein isoforms both in SEG/Pas and C57BL/6J strains. Finally, we propose a possible mechanism by which the hallmark tandem duplication of a 18-nt exon (14 copies) may have occurred in the mouse genome.
Project description:Probiotics intervention has been proposed as a feasible preventative approach against adverse health-related complications in infants. Nevertheless, the umbrella concept of probiotics has led to a massive application of probiotics in a range of products for promoting infant health, for which the strain-specificity, safety and efficacy findings associated with a specific probiotics strain are not clearly defined. Bifidobacterium breve M-16V is a commonly used probiotic strain in infants. M-16V has been demonstrated to offer potential in protecting infants from developing the devastating necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and allergic diseases. This review comprehends the potential beneficial effects of M-16V on infant health particularly in the prevention and treatment of premature birth complications and immune-mediated disorders in infants. Mechanistic studies supporting the use of M-16V implicated that M-16V is capable of promoting early gut microbial colonisation and may be involved in the regulation of immune balance and inflammatory response to protect high-risk infants from NEC and allergies. Summarised information on M-16V has provided conceptual proof of the use of M-16V as a potential probiotics candidate aimed at promoting infant health, particularly in the vulnerable preterm population.
Project description:This experiment is one of a series of experiments on interspecific recombinant congenic strain (IRCS) mice that aimed to identify novel genes involved in male or female hyporfertility by comparing characteristics of the sperm, number of offspring, quality ofÂ implantation etc. in C57B6/J and IRCS mice. <br>The goal of this experiment was to understand the basis of female hypofertility/embryonicÂ resorption in a mouse model of congenic strains. The IRCS strain used in this experiment is the 66H Ch13 mouse. This strain was derived by introgression of a ~6 Mb fragment of mus spretus originÂ inside the genome of Mus musculus (C57B6/J) (L'hÃ´te etÂ al, Bioessays, 2010. PMID:20091755 ) Previous ultrasonographic analysis of this line revealed an increased rate of embryonic resorption compared to the C57B6/J parent (Laissue et al, Int. J . Dev. Biol, 2009 PMID: 19488966 ). <br>In this experiment we measured gene expression in the tissues that are relevant for implantation and early development, i.e. the uterus and the placenta, in C57B6/J and 66H Chr13 mice at 12 days post-coÃ¯tus with C57B6/J males. Pools of RNA from four mice per sample were obtained and analysed using a Nimblegen mouse expression array.
Project description:A LINE-1 element, LIC105, was found in the Mus musculus domesticus inbred strain, C57BL/6J. Upon sequencing, this element was found to belong to a M. spretus LINE-1 subfamily originating within the last 0.2 million years. This is the second spretus-specific LINE-1 subfamily found to be represented in C57BL/6J. Although it is unclear how these M. spretus LINE-1s transferred from M. spretus to M. m. domesticus, it is now clear that at least two different spretus LINE-1 sequences have recently transferred. The limited divergence between the C57BL/6J spretus-like LINE-1s and their closest spretus ancestors suggests that the transfer did not involve an exceptionally long lineage of sequential transpositions.
Project description:The consumption of probiotics and fermented foods has been very popular in recent decades. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of probiotics on the gut microbiota and the changes in inflammatory cytokines after an average of 6.7 weeks of probiotic administration among normal pregnant women. Thirty-two healthy pregnant women at 32 weeks of gestation were recruited and divided into two groups. The probiotic group ingested combined probiotics until after birth. The base characteristics of the probiotics and control groups showed no significant differences. The structure of the fecal microbiota at the genus level varied during the third trimester, and administration of probiotics had no influence on the composition of the fecal microbiota however, many highly abundant taxa and core microbiota at the genus level changed in the probiotic group when compared to the control group. The analysis of cytokines showed that IL-5, IL-6, TNF-?, and GM-CSF had equal levels between the baseline and control groups but were significantly increased after probiotic administration (baseline = control < probiotics). Additionally, levels of IL-1?, IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-? significantly increased among the three groups (baseline < control < probiotics). This result demonstrated that probiotics helped to shift the anti-inflammatory state to a pro-inflammatory state. The correlation analysis outcome suggested that the relationship between the microbiota and the cytokines was not strain-dependent. The gut microbiota varied during the third trimester. The probiotics demonstrated immunomodulation effects that helped to switch over to a pro-inflammatory immune state in the third trimester, which was important for labor.