Project description:The co-cultivation of the alphaproteobacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae with the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum is characterized by a mutualistic phase followed by a pathogenic phase in which the bacterium kills aging algae. Thus it resembles the "Jekyll-and-Hyde" interaction that has been proposed for other algae and Roseobacter. Here, we identified key genetic components of this interaction. Analysis of the transcriptome of D. shibae in co-culture with P. minimum revealed growth phase dependent changes in the expression of quorum sensing, the CtrA phosphorelay, and flagella biosynthesis genes. Deletion of the histidine kinase gene cckA which is part of the CtrA phosphorelay or the flagella genes fliC or flgK resulted in complete lack of growth stimulation of P. minimum in co-culture with the D. shibae mutants. By contrast, pathogenicity was entirely dependent on one of the extrachromosomal elements of D. shibae, the 191 kb plasmid. The data show that flagella and the CtrA phosphorelay are required for establishing mutualism and prove a cell density dependent killing effect of D. shibae on P. minimum which is mediated by an unknown factor encoded on the 191 kb plasmid.
Project description:Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL 12T is a metabolically versatile member of the world-wide abundant Roseobacter clade. As an epibiont of dinoflagellates D. shibae is subjected to rigorous changes in oxygen availability. It has been shown that it loses up to 90% of its intracellular ATP when exposed to anoxic conditions. Yet, D. shibae regenerates its ATP level quickly when oxygen becomes available again. In the present study we focused on the bioenergetic aspects of the quick recovery and hypothesized that the proton-motive force decreases during anoxia and gets restored upon re-aeration. Therefore, we analyzed ?pH and the membrane potential (??) during the oxic-anoxic transitions. To visualize changes of ?? we used fluorescence microscopy and the carbocyanine dyes DiOC2 (3; 3,3'-Diethyloxacarbocyanine Iodide) and JC-10. In control experiments the ??-decreasing effects of the chemiosmotic inhibitors CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone), TCS (3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide) and gramicidin were tested on D. shibae and Gram-negative and -positive control bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). We found that ?pH is not affected by short-term anoxia and does not contribute to the quick ATP regeneration in D. shibae. By contrast, ?? was increased during anoxia, which was astonishing since none of the control organisms behaved that way. Our study shows physiological and bioenergetical aspects comparing to previous studies on transcriptomic responses to the transition from aerobic to nitrate respiration in D. shibae. For the lifestyle as an epibiont of a dinoflagellate, the ability to stand phases of temporary oxygen depletion is beneficial. With a boosted ??, the cells are able to give their ATP regeneration a flying start, once oxygen is available again.