Project description:Samples of oil and production water were collected from five wells of the Qinghai Oilfield, China, and subjected to GeoChip hybridization experiments for microbial functional diversity profiling. Unexpectedly, a remarkable microbial diversity in oil samples, which was higher than that in the corresponding water samples, was observed, thus challenging previously believed assumptions about the microbial diversity in this ecosystem. Hierarchical clustering separated oil and water samples, thereby indicating distinct functional structures in the samples. Genes involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons, organic remediation, stress response, and carbon cycling were significantly abundant in crude oil, which is consistent with their important roles in residing in oil. Association analysis with environmental variables suggested that oil components comprising aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and a polar fraction with nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing compounds were mainly influential on the structure of the microbial community. Furthermore, a comparison of microbial communities in oil samples indicated that the structures were depth/temperature-dependent. To our knowledge, this is the first thorough study to profile microbial functional diversity in crude oil samples. From the Qinghai Oilfield located in the Tibetan Plateau, northwest China, oil production mixtures were taken from four oil production wells (No. 813, 516, 48 and 27) and one injection well (No. 517) in the Yue-II block. The floating oil and water phases of the production mixtures were separated overnight by gravitational separation. Subsequently, the microbial community and the characteristics of the water solution (W813, W516, W48, and W27) and floating crude oil (O813, O516, O48, and O27) samples were analyzed. A similar analysis was performed with the injection water solution (W517).
Project description:Land cover change has long been recognized that marked effect the amount of soil organic carbon. However, little is known about microbial-mediated effect processes and mechanism on soil organic carbon. In this study, the soil samples in a degenerated succession from alpine meadow to alpine steppe meadow in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau degenerated, were analyzed by using GeoChip functional gene arrays. Overall design: soil microbial functional gene diversity; 20 samples were collected from alpine meadow and alpine-steppe meadow in Qinghai-Tibetan, China, with 10 replicates in every site
Project description:Known as “The Oriental Botanic Garden” and the natural gene bank of biological species, Shennongjia is one of the most biologically diverse areas in China and a member of UNESCO's World Network of Biosphere Reserves. The macro-organism resources of shennongjia have been deeply explored. However, the microbial community structure was scarcely detected. In this study, we aim to detedect the microbial community along six sites of Shennonajia Mountain and explore the major controlling factor in shaping microbial community with a microarray-based metagenomics tool named GeoChip 4.2. Seventy-three samples were collected from six sites along the Shennongjia Mountain, with 5-15 replicates in every site
Project description:Xiangjiang River (Hunan, China) has been contaminated with heavy metal for several decades by surrounding factories. However, little is known about the influence of a gradient of heavy metal contamination on the diversity, structure of microbial functional gene in sediment. To deeply understand the impact of heavy metal contamination on microbial community, a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) has been used to study the functional genes structure, composition, diversity and metabolic potential of microbial community from three heavy metal polluted sites of Xiangjiang River. Three groups of samples, A, B and C. Every group has 3 replicates.
Project description:Waste decomposition in landfills is a complex and microbe-mediated process. Understanding the microbial community composition and structure is critical for accelerating decomposition and reducing adverse impact on the environment. Here, we examined the microbial communities along with landfill depth and age (LDA) in a sanitary landfill in Beijing, China using 16s rRNA Illumina sequencing and GeoChip 4.6. We found that Clostridiales and Methanofollis were the predominant bacteria and archaea in the present landfill, respectively. Interestingly, in contrast with the decreasing trend of microbial diversity in soil, both phylogenetic and functional diversities were higher in deeper and older refuse in the landfill. Phylogenetic compositions were obviously different in the refuse with the same LDA and such difference is mainly attributed to the heterogeneity of refuse instead of random process. Nevertheless, functional structures were similar within the same LDA, indicating that microbial community assembly in the landfill may be better reflected by functional genes rather than phylogenetic identity. Mantel test and canonical correspondence analysis suggested that environmental variables had significant impacts on both phylogenetic composition and functional structure. Higher stress genes, genes for degrading toxic substances and endemic genes in deeper and older refuse indicated that they were needed for the microorganisms to survive in the more severe environments. This study suggests that landfills are a repository of stress-resistant and contaminant-degrading microorganisms, which can be used for accelerating landfill stabilization and enhancing in situ degradation. Fifteen refuse samples with five landfill depths and ages (6m/2a, 12m/4a, 18m/6a, 24m/8a and 30m/10a) were collected from a sanitary landfill in Beijing, China. Three replicates in every landfill depth and age
Project description:The increased urban pressures are often associated with specialization of microbial communities. Microbial communities being a critical player in the geochemical processes, makes it important to identify key environmental parameters that influence the community structure and its function.In this proect we study the influence of land use type and environmental parameters on the structure and function of microbial communities. The present study was conducted in an urban catchment, where the metal and pollutants levels are under allowable limits. The overall goal of this study is to understand the role of engineered physicochemical environment on the structure and function of microbial communities in urban storm-water canals. Microbial community structure was determined using PhyoChio (G3) Water and sediment samples were collected after a rain event from Sungei Ulu Pandan watershed of >25km2, which has two major land use types: Residential and industrial. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical variables and microbial community structure and composition. Microbial community structure was determined using PhyoChio (G3)
Project description:Bacteriophage – host dynamics and interactions are important for microbial community composition and ecosystem function. Nonetheless, empirical evidence in engineered environment is scarce. Here, we examined phage and prokaryotic community composition of four anaerobic digestors in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across China. Despite relatively stable process performance in biogas production, both phage and prokaryotic groups fluctuated monthly over a year of study period. Nonetheless, there were significant correlations in their α- and β-diversities between phage and prokaryotes. Phages explained 40.6% of total prokaryotic community composition, much higher than the explainable power by abiotic factors (14.5%). Consequently, phages were significantly (P<0.010) linked to parameters related to process performance including biogas production and volatile solid concentrations. Association network analyses showed that phage-prokaryote pairs were deeply rooted, and two network modules were exclusively comprised of phages, suggesting a possibility of co-infection. Those results collectively demonstrate phages as a major biotic factor in controlling bacterial composition. Therefore, phages may play a larger role in shaping prokaryotic dynamics and process performance of WWTPs than currently appreciated, enabling reliable prediction of microbial communities across time and space. Overall design: 48 samples were monthly collected from 4 anaerobic tanks in 3 wastewater treatment plants (Ninghai WWTP has 2 tank applying mesophilic and thermophilic technology respectively) during a year.
Project description:Sex condition has been demonstrated to alter meat quality and sex is a major factor that affects the fatty acid composition of lipids of carcass dissectible or intramuscular depot fats. But the possible genetic molecular mechanism of gender causing meat quality differences is not well defined. Qinchuan cattle, Qinghai yak and Guangxi buffalo are three typical indigenous species of cattle in China. Obivious differences of meat quality exist among the three species of cattle. Few studies have been conducted to elucidate the muscle tissue expression of genes involved in pathways and mechanisms leading to meat quality differences beyond the phenotype properties of beef. Bovine Genome Arrays were used to construct muscle expression profiles of the longuissimus dorsi from Qinchuan cattle at 36 months and screen differentially expressed genes in the longuissimus dorsi muscle tissues among different genders of Qinchuan cattle, between Qinchuan cattle and Qinghai yak, and between Qinchuan cattle and Guangxi buffalo. Overall design: Qinchuan cattle intact males, castrated males and females born within a 30-day period and of similar genetic background and reared under the same experimental conditions were used in the current study. Differentially expressed genes among the different genders were screened out, mainly involved in collagen metabolism, protein anabolism and catabolism signal transduction, regulation of cell growth and development and immunity. In addtion, this study has conducted the comparison of the muscle tissues gene expression profile of Qinchuan cattle with those of Qinghai yak and Guangxi buffalo.
Project description:Soil transplant serves as a proxy to simulate climate change in realistic climate regimes. Here, we assessed the effects of climate warming and cooling on soil microbial communities, which are key drivers in Earth’s biogeochemical cycles, four years after soil transplant over large transects from northern (N site) to central (NC site) and southern China (NS site) and vice versa. Four years after soil transplant, soil nitrogen components, microbial biomass, community phylogenetic and functional structures were altered. Microbial functional diversity, measured by a metagenomic tool named GeoChip, and phylogenetic diversity are increased with temperature, while microbial biomass were similar or decreased. Nevertheless, the effects of climate change was overridden by maize cropping, underscoring the need to disentangle them in research. Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) demonstrated that vegetation, climatic factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation), soil nitrogen components and CO2 efflux were significantly correlated to the microbial community composition. Further investigation unveiled strong correlations between carbon cycling genes and CO2 efflux in bare soil but not cropped soil, and between nitrogen cycling genes and nitrification, which provides mechanistic understanding of these microbe-mediated processes and empowers an interesting possibility of incorporating bacterial gene abundance in greenhouse gas emission modeling. Fifty four samples were collected from three soil types (Phaeozem,Cambisol,Acrisol) in three sites (Hailun, Fengqiu and Yingtan) along a latitude with reciprocal transplant; Both with and without maize cropping in each site; Three replicates in every treatments.