Project description:Comparison of gene expression profiles from Mus musculus hippocampus after physical exercise (treadmill; endurance training over 4 weeks). The RNA-seq data comprise 4 groups: 2 age groups, each w/ and w/o physical exercise. Jena Centre for Systems Biology of Ageing - JenAge (www.jenage.de) Overall design: 20 samples in 4 groups: 5 months control (5 samples), 5 months physical exercise (5 samples), 20 months control (5 samples), 20 months physical exercise (5 samples)
Project description:Comparison of gene expression profiles from Mus musculus cerebral hemisphere after physical exercise (treadmill; endurance training over 4 weeks). The RNA-seq data comprise4 groups: 2 age groups, each w/ and w/o physical exercise. Jena Centre for Systems Biology of Ageing - JenAge (www.jenage.de) Overall design: 20 samples in 4 groups: 5 months control (5 samples), 5 months physical exercise (5 samples), 20 months control (5 samples), 20 months physical exercise (5 samples)
Project description:Epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in gene regulation and the development of different diseases. The epigenome differs between cell types and has until now only been characterized for a few human tissues. Environmental factors potentially alter the epigenome. Here we describe the genome-wide pattern of DNA methylation in human adipose tissue from 23 healthy men, with a previous low level of physical activity, before and after a six months exercise intervention. We also investigate the differences in adipose tissue DNA methylation between 31 individuals with or without a family history of type 2 diabetes. DNA methylation was analyzed using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, an array containing 485,577 probes covering 99% RefSeq genes. Global DNA methylation changed and 17,975 individual CpG sites in 7,663 unique genes showed altered levels of DNA methylation after the exercise intervention (q<0.05). Differential mRNA expression was present in 1/3 of gene regions with altered DNA methylation, including RALBP1, HDAC4 and NCOR2 (q<0.05). Using a luciferase assay, we could show that increased DNA methylation in vitro of the RALBP1 promoter suppressed the transcriptional activity (p?=?0.03). Moreover, 18 obesity and 21 type 2 diabetes candidate genes had CpG sites with differences in adipose tissue DNA methylation in response to exercise (q<0.05), including TCF7L2 (6 CpG sites) and KCNQ1 (10 CpG sites). A simultaneous change in mRNA expression was seen for 6 of those genes. To understand if genes that exhibit differential DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human adipose tissue in vivo affect adipocyte metabolism, we silenced Hdac4 and Ncor2 respectively in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which resulted in increased lipogenesis both in the basal and insulin stimulated state. In conclusion, exercise induces genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in human adipose tissue, potentially affecting adipocyte metabolism.
Project description:Understanding the role of 'epigenetic' changes such as DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling has now become critical in understanding many biological processes. In order to delineate the global methylation pattern in a given genomic DNA, computer software has been developed to create a virtual image of restriction landmark genomic scanning (Vi-RLGS). When using a methylation- sensitive enzyme such as NotI as the restriction landmark, the comparison between real and in silico RLGS profiles of the genome provides a methylation map of genomic NotI sites. A methylation map of the Arabidopsis genome was created that could be confirmed by a methylation-sensitive PCR assay. The method has also been applied to the mouse genome. Although a complete methylation map has not been completed, a region of methylation difference between two tissues has been tested and confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. Vi-RLGS in conjunction with real RLGS will make it possible to develop a more complete map of genomic sites that are methylated or demethylated as a consequence of normal or abnormal development.
Project description:Natural Killer (NK-) cells reveal a keen reaction to acute bouts of exercise, including changes of epigenetic modifications. So far, exercise-induced alterations in NK-cell DNA-methylation were shown for single genes only. Studies analyzing genome-wide DNA-methylation have used conglomerates like peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) rather than specific subsets of immune cells. Therefore, the aim of this pilot-study was to generate first insights into the influence of a single bout of exercise on genome-wide DNA-methylation in isolated NK-cells to open the field for such analyses. Five healthy women performed an incremental step test and blood samples were taken before and after exercise. DNA was isolated from magnet bead sorted NK-cells and further analyzed for global DNA-methylation using the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip. DNA-methylation was changed at 33 targets after acute exercise. These targets were annotated to 25 genes. Of the targets, 19 showed decreased and 14 increased methylation. The 25 genes with altered DNA-methylation have different roles in cell regulation and differ in their molecular functions. These data give new insights in the exercise induced regulation of NK-cells. By using isolated NK-cells, exercise induced differences in DNA-methylation could be shown. Whether or not these changes lead to functional adaptions needs to be elucidated.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen which is often the cause of major morbidity and mortality in both hospital and community settings. For this reason, we investigated the host cell early immune resoponse to S. aureus infection using genome-wide analysis. To do this, we infected Mus musculus RAW264.7 cells with S. aureus alone or in the presence of free peptidoglycan (PG), which appears in the S. aureus cell wall. Post infection, we performed a genome-wide analysis of RAW246.7 cells to identify significant changes in the gene expression profile. Further, we analyzed the infected RAW246.7 cells with transmission electron microscopy looking for the presence of bacterial cells inside the host cell. We also used flow cytometry to determine whether cells had induced apoptosis. The results showed that S. aureus induced apoptosis in the RAW246.7 cells but did not effectively clear away intracellular bacteria cells. However, S. aureus + PG treatment inhibited the apoptosis and activated the host cell inflammation response, possibly involving NF-?B and JAK-STAT pathways, as identified by genome-wide analysis, in RAW246.7 cells. Our study demonstrated for the first time that an independent application of free PG was capable of activating immune responses the host cells.
Project description:Copy number variation is an important dimension of genetic diversity and has implications in development and disease. As an important model organism, the mouse is a prime candidate for copy number variant (CNV) characterization, but this has yet to be completed for a large sample size. Here we report CNV analysis of publicly available, high-density microarray data files for 351 mouse tail samples, including 290 mice that had not been characterized for CNVs previously.We found 9634 putative autosomal CNVs across the samples affecting 6.87% of the mouse reference genome. We find significant differences in the degree of CNV uniqueness (single sample occurrence) and the nature of CNV-gene overlap between wild-caught mice and classical laboratory strains. CNV-gene overlap was associated with lipid metabolism, pheromone response and olfaction compared to immunity, carbohydrate metabolism and amino-acid metabolism for wild-caught mice and classical laboratory strains, respectively. Using two subspecies of wild-caught Mus musculus, we identified putative CNVs unique to those subspecies and show this diversity is better captured by wild-derived laboratory strains than by the classical laboratory strains. A total of 9 genic copy number variable regions (CNVRs) were selected for experimental confirmation by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).The analysis we present is a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of CNVs in Mus musculus, which increases the number of known variants in the species and will accelerate the identification of novel variants in future studies.
Project description:Consomic (chromosome substitution) strains (CSs) represent the most recent addition to the mouse genetic resources aimed to genetically analyze complex trait loci (QTLs). In this study, we report the development of a set of 28 mouse intersubspecific CSs. In each CS, we replaced a single chromosome of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain (mostly Mus m. domesticus) with its homolog from the PWD/Ph inbred strain of the Mus m. musculus subspecies. These two progenitor subspecies diverged less than 1 million years ago and accumulated a large number of genetic differences that constitute a rich resource of genetic variation for QTL analyses. Altogether, the 18 consomic, nine subconsomic, and one conplastic strain covered all 19 autosomes, X and Y sex chromosomes, and mitochondrial DNA. Most CSs had significantly lower reproductive fitness compared with the progenitor strains. CSs homosomic for chromosomes 10 and 11, and the C57BL/6J-Chr X males, failed to reproduce and were substituted by less affected subconsomics carrying either a proximal, central, or distal part of the respective chromosome. A genome-wide scan of 965 DNA markers revealed 99.87% purity of the B6 genetic background. Thirty-three nonsynonymous substitutions were uncovered in the protein-coding regions of the mitochondrial DNA of the B6.PWD-mt conplastic strain. A pilot-phenotyping experiment project revealed a high number of variations among B6.PWD consomics.
Project description:Physical activity is associated with a lower risk of breast, colon, and endometrial cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms such as changes in DNA methylation may help to explain these protective effects. We assessed the impact of a one year aerobic exercise intervention on DNA methylation biomarkers believed to play a role in carcinogenesis. The Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) Trial was a two-armed randomized controlled trial in 320 healthy, inactive, postmenopausal women with no history of cancer. In an ancillary analysis, frozen blood samples (n = 256) were reassessed for levels of DNA methylation within LINE-1 and Alu repeats as well as within the promoter regions of APC, BRCA1, RASSF1, and hTERT genes. Differences between the exercise and control arm at 12-months, after adjusting for baseline values, were estimated within an intent-to-treat and per-protocol analysis using linear regression. No significant differences in DNA methylation between the exercise and control arms were observed. In an exploratory analysis, we found that the prospective change in estimated VO2max was negatively associated with RASSF1 methylation in a dose-response manner (p-trend = 0.04). A year-long aerobic exercise intervention does not affect LINE-1, Alu, APC, BRCA1, RASSF1, or hTERT methylation in healthy, inactive, postmenopausal women. Changes in DNA methylation within these genomic regions may not mediate the association between physical activity and cancer in healthy postmenopausal women. Additional research is needed to validate our findings with RASSF1 methylation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00522262.