Project description:The goal of this experiment is to assess tissue preferential transcript accumulation and fold difference between two tissues that support secondary vascular growth in three spruces: Picea glauca, Picea sitchensis and Picea mariana. Tissues compared are secondary xylem (wood forming tissue located on the internal side of the cambial meristem) and phelloderm (composite sample of the phloem and phelloderm tissues located on the outer side of the cambial meristem). One-color comparison of 3 spruce species in 2 tissue types: xylem and phelloderm. 20 biological repetitions per tissue for Picea glauca and 15 for Picea sitchensis and Picea mariana, for a total of 100 slides.
Project description:Diversification of defense-related compounds is a plant defense mechanism against the diverse array of natural enemies in the course of evolution, and is known to involve various sources of tissue. Here a large-scale survey of gene expression is conducted from three different sources of tissue; needles, phloem with the attached bark, and xylem, with an emphasis on the expression of the secondary metabolites of the core phenylpropanoid pathway and derivative pathways, taken together as phenolic defense-related compounds. Five species of spruce; P. abies, P. glauca, P. jezoensis, P. mariana, and P. omorika, spanning much of their known phylogeny, are chosen for cross-species microarray hybridizations. The objectives are: first) to explore the tissue-related differences in the expression of phenolic genes and their coherent role in tree defense; second) to describe the diversification trends in the expression of phenolic gene families with respect to their position in the pathway; and third) to infer the mode of evolution underlying the expression of the selected genes. Overall design: Trees at the arboretum of Kalamalka Research Station, Vernon, BC, Canada (http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hre/forgen/rstations.htm#Kalamalka_Research_Station) were designated for sampling. Three biological replicates of Black spruce (Picea mariana), Jezo spruce (P. jezoensis), Norway spruce (P. abies), Serbian spruce (P. omorika), and White spruce (P. glauca) were sampled. The bark and the attached phloem were separated from inner layers, and the xylem tissue was scraped off. The fresh current-year needles were pooled from different aerial branches on the mid-afternoon of Apr. 24, 2007, flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen, and transferred into separate containers. A modified loop design was decided for gene expression profiling with 15 cross-species hybridizations per each source of tissue (total of 45 slides) using the Treenomix third generation cDNA microarray platform (GEO accession #: GPL5423). Array350 kit (Genisphere, Hatfield, USA) was chosen for the microarray hybridizations of needle and bark/phloem sources of tissue. Due to the lower yield of RNA extraction, microarray hybridization of the xylem tissue used Array900 (Genisphere, Hatfield, USA). The slides were scanned with a ProScanArray scanner (PerkinElmer, Downers Grove, IL, USA), and the scanned TIF images were processed by ImaGene software (BioDiscovery, Inc., El Segundo, CA, USA)to quantify spot intensities. The spot intensities were normalized with the variance stabilizing (VSN) method, and the normalized log channel intensities were analyzed by fitting a linear mixed effects model.
Project description:We developed a reliable CNV detection method for species lacking contiguous reference genome. We selected multiple probes within 14,078 gene sequences and developed comparative genome hybridization on arrays. Gene CNVs were assessed in three full-sib families from species with 20 Gb genomes, i.e. white and black spruce, and interior spruce - a natural hybrid. Results: We discovered hundreds of gene CNVs in each species, 3612 in total, which were enriched in functions related to stress and defense responses and narrow expression profiles, indicating a potential role in adaptation. The number of shared CNVs was in accordance with the degree of relatedness between individuals and species. The genetically mapped subset of these genes showed a wide distribution across the genome, implying numerous structural variations. The hybrid family presented significantly fewer CNVs, suggesting that the admixture of two species within one genome reduces the occurrence of CNVs. Overall design: CNV analysis of descendent and parental White Spruce (Picea glauca), Interior Spruce (Picea engelmannii x Picea glauca) and Black Spruce (Picea mariana)
Project description:Small RNAs (21-24 nt) are pivotal regulators of gene expression that guide both transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing mechanisms in diverse eukaryotes, including most if not all plants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the two major types, both of which have a demonstrated and important role in plant development, stress responses and pathogen resistance. In this work, we used a deep sequencing approach (Sequencing-By-Synthesis, or SBS) to develop sequence resources of small RNAs from Picea abies tissues (including needles, immature cones and lateral bud meristem). The high depth of the resulting datasets enabled us to examine in detail critical small RNA features as size distribution, tissue-specific regulation and sequence conservation between different organs in this species. We also developed database resources and a dedicated website (http://smallrna.udel.edu/) with computational tools for allowing other users to identify new miRNAs or siRNAs involved in specific regulatory pathways, verify the degree of conservation of these sequences in other plant species and map small RNAs on genes or larger regions of the maize genome under study. Small RNA libraries were derived from needles, immature female cones and lateral bud meristem of Picea abies. Total RNA was isolated using the Plant RNA Purification Reagent (Invitrogen), and submitted to Illumina (Hayward, CA, http://www.illumina.com) for small RNA library construction using approaches described in (Lu et al., 2007) with minor modifications. The small RNA libraries were sequenced with the Sequencing-By-Synthesis (SBS) technology by Illumina. PERL scripts were designed to remove the adapter sequences and determine the abundance of each distinct small RNA. We thank David Neale for providing the plant material as well as Kan Nobuta and Gayathri Mahalingam for assistance with the computational methods.