Project description:Although it has been shown that HIF1 and 2 fulfill essential roles within the hematopoietic system and in the regulation of HSC fate, little is currently known about the specific mechanisms that are involved. We identified transcriptome changes induced by hypoxia, constitutively active HIF1(P402/564) and HIF2(P405/531) in human cord blood CD34+ cells. Thus, we were able to identify common hypoxia-HIF1-HIF2 gene signatures, but we also identified specific target genes that were exclusively regulated by HIF1, HIF2 or hypoxia. CB CD34+ cells were isolated by Miltenyi miniMACS column. Cells were prestimulated in HPGM with 100 ng/ml KITL, FLT3L and TPO for 3 days after which cells were placed either at normoxia or hypoxia (1% O2 for an additional 24 hrs). 5 independent CB CD34+ batches were used and isolated RNA was combined and used for Illumina beadhchip arrays HT12 v4
Project description:Although it has been shown that HIF1 and 2 fulfill essential roles within the hematopoietic system and in the regulation of HSC fate, little is currently known about the specific mechanisms that are involved. We identified transcriptome changes induced by hypoxia, constitutively active HIF1(P402/564) and HIF2(P405/531) in human cord blood CD34+ cells. Thus, we were able to identify common hypoxia-HIF1-HIF2 gene signatures, but we also identified specific target genes that were exclusively regulated by HIF1, HIF2 or hypoxia. Geneset enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that, besides known pathways associated with "hypoxia-induced signaling", also significant enrichment for the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF?) pathway was observed within the hypoxia/HIF1/HIF2 transcriptomes. One of the most significantly upregulated genes in both gene sets was the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1C (p57kip2). Combined hypoxia treatment or HIF overexpression together with TGF? stimulation resulted in enhanced expression of CDKN1C and enhanced cell cycle arrest within the CD34+/CD38- stem cell compartment. Interestingly, we observed that CD34+ cells cultured under hypoxic conditions secreted high levels of latent TGF?, suggesting an auto- or paracrine role of TGF? in the regulation of quiescence of these cells. However, knockdown of SMAD4 could not rescue the hypoxia induced cell cycle arrest, arguing against direct effects of hypoxia-induced secreted TGF?. Finally, the G?-coupled receptor GTPase RGS1 was identified as a HIF-dependent hypoxia target that dampens SDF1-induced migration and signal transduction in human CD34+ stem/progenitor cells.
Project description:Although it has been shown that HIF1 and 2 fulfill essential roles within the hematopoietic system and in the regulation of HSC fate, little is currently known about the specific mechanisms that are involved. We identified transcriptome changes induced by hypoxia, constitutively active HIF1(P402/564) and HIF2(P405/531) in human cord blood CD34+ cells. Thus, we were able to identify common hypoxia-HIF1-HIF2 gene signatures, but we also identified specific target genes that were exclusively regulated by HIF1, HIF2 or hypoxia. CB CD34+ cells were isolated by Miltenyi miniMACS column. Cells were prestimulated in HPGM with 100 ng/ml KITL, FLT3L and TPO for 48 hrs. Cells were transduced with control pRRL-IRS2-EGFP lentiviral vectors or vectors expressing HIF1α(P402A,P564A) or HIF2α(P405A,P531A) in one or two rounds of 12 hrs each. 24 hrs later transduced cells were sorted after which RNA was isolated. 5 independent CB CD34+ batches were isolated, transduced and sorted, and isolated RNA was combined and used for Illumina beadhchip arrays HT12 v4
Project description:The Warburg effect is probably the most prominent metabolic feature of cancer cells, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms and consequences. Here, we set out to study these features in detail in a number of leukemia backgrounds. The transcriptomes of human CB CD34+ cells transduced with various oncogenes, including BCR-ABL, MLL-AF9, FLT3-ITD, NUP98-HOXA9, STAT5A and KRASG12V were analyzed in detail. Our data indicate that in particular BCR-ABL, KRASG12V and STAT5 could impose hypoxic signaling under normoxic conditions. This coincided with an upregulation of glucose importers SLC2A1/3, hexokinases and HIF1 and 2. NMR-based metabolic profiling was performed in CB CD34+ cells transduced with BCR-ABL versus controls, both cultured under normoxia and hypoxia. Lactate and pyruvate levels were increased in BCR-ABL-expressing cells even under normoxia, coinciding with enhanced glutaminolysis which occurred in an HIF1/2-dependent manner. Expression of the glutamine importer SLC1A5 was increased in BCR-ABL+ cells, coinciding with an increased susceptibility to the glutaminase inhibitor BPTES. Oxygen consumption rates also decreased upon BPTES treatment, indicating a glutamine dependency for oxidative phosphorylation. The current study suggests that BCR-ABL-positive cancer cells make use of enhanced glutamine metabolism to maintain TCA cell cycle activity in glycolytic cells.
Project description:Background:Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)1 and 2 are transcription factors that regulate the homeostatic response to low oxygen conditions. Since data related to the importance of HIF1 and 2 in hematopoietic stem and progenitors is conflicting, we investigated the chromatin binding profiles of HIF1 and HIF2 and linked that to transcriptional networks and the cellular metabolic state. Methods:Genome-wide ChIPseq and ChIP-PCR experiments were performed to identify HIF1 and HIF2 binding sites in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and healthy CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Transcriptome studies were performed to identify gene expression changes induced by hypoxia or by overexpression of oxygen-insensitive HIF1 and HIF2 mutants. Metabolism studies were performed by 1D-NMR, and glucose consumption and lactate production levels were determined by spectrophotometric enzyme assays. CRISPR-CAS9-mediated HIF1, HIF2, and ARNT-/- lines were generated to study the functional consequences upon loss of HIF signaling, in vitro and in vivo upon transplantation of knockout lines in xenograft mice. Results:Genome-wide ChIP-seq and transcriptome studies revealed that overlapping HIF1- and HIF2-controlled loci were highly enriched for various processes including metabolism, particularly glucose metabolism, but also for chromatin organization, cellular response to stress and G protein-coupled receptor signaling. ChIP-qPCR validation studies confirmed that glycolysis-related genes but not genes related to the TCA cycle or glutaminolysis were controlled by both HIF1 and HIF2 in leukemic cell lines and primary AMLs, while in healthy human CD34+ cells these loci were predominantly controlled by HIF1 and not HIF2. However, and in contrast to our initial hypotheses, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of HIF signaling did not affect growth, internal metabolite concentrations, glucose consumption or lactate production under hypoxia, not even in vivo upon transplantation of knockout cells into xenograft mice. Conclusion:These data indicate that, while HIFs exert control over glycolysis but not OxPHOS gene expression in human leukemic cells, this is not critically important for their metabolic state. In contrast, inhibition of BCR-ABL did impact on glucose consumption and lactate production regardless of the presence of HIFs. These data indicate that oncogene-mediated control over glycolysis can occur independently of hypoxic signaling modules.
Project description:Solid tumors often exhibit simultaneously inflammatory and hypoxic microenvironments. The 'signal transducer and activator of transcription-3' (STAT3)-mediated inflammatory response and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-mediated hypoxia response have been independently shown to promote tumorigenesis through the activation of HIF or STAT3 target genes and to be indicative of a poor prognosis in a variety of tumors. We report here for the first time that STAT3 is involved in the HIF1, but not HIF2-mediated hypoxic transcriptional response. We show that inhibiting STAT3 activity in MDA-MB-231 and RCC4 cells by a STAT3 inhibitor or STAT3 small interfering RNA significantly reduces the levels of HIF1, but not HIF2 target genes in spite of normal levels of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1? (HIF1?) and HIF2? protein. Mechanistically, STAT3 activates HIF1 target genes by binding to HIF1 target gene promoters, interacting with HIF1? protein and recruiting coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300, and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to form enhanceosome complexes that contain HIF1?, STAT3, CBP, p300 and RNA Pol II on HIF1 target gene promoters. Functionally, the effect of STAT3 knockdown on proliferation, motility and clonogenic survival of tumor cells in vitro is phenocopied by HIF1? knockdown in hypoxic cells, whereas STAT3 knockdown in normoxic cells also reduces cell proliferation, motility and clonogenic survival. This indicates that STAT3 works with HIF1 to activate HIF1 target genes and to drive HIF1-depedent tumorigenesis under hypoxic conditions, but also has HIF-independent activity in normoxic and hypoxic cells. Identifying the role of STAT3 in the hypoxia response provides further data supporting the effectiveness of STAT3 inhibitors in solid tumor treatment owing to their usefulness in inhibiting both the STAT3 and HIF1 pro-tumorigenic signaling pathways in some cancer types.
Project description:The ex vivo generation of human red blood cells on a large scale from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells has been considered as a potential method to overcome blood supply shortages. Here, we report that functional human erythrocytes can be efficiently produced from cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells using a bottle turning device culture system. Safety and efficiency studies were performed in murine and nonhuman primate (NHP) models. With the selected optimized culture conditions, one human CB CD34+ cell could be induced ex vivo to produce up to 200 million erythrocytes with a purity of 90.1%?±?6.2% and 50%?±?5.7% (mean?±?SD) for CD235a+ cells and enucleated cells, respectively. The yield of erythrocytes from one CB unit (5 million CD34+ cells) could be, in theory, equivalent to 500 blood transfusion units in clinical application. Moreover, induced human erythrocytes had normal hemoglobin content and could continue to undergo terminal maturation in the murine xenotransplantation model. In NHP model, xenotransplantation of induced human erythrocytes enhanced hematological recovery and ameliorated the hypoxia situation in the primates with hemorrhagic anemia. These findings suggested that the ex vivo-generated erythrocytes could be an alternative blood source for traditional transfusion products in the clinic. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1698-1709.
Project description:Hypoxia-inducible factor promotes erythropoiesis through coordinated cell type-specific hypoxia responses. GATA1 is essential to normal erythropoiesis and plays a crucial role in erythroid differentiation. In this study, we show that hypoxia-induced GATA1 expression is mediated by HIF1 in erythroid cells. Under hypoxic conditions, significantly increased GATA1 mRNA and protein levels were detected in K562 cells and erythroid induction cultures of CD34(+) haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Enforced HIF1? expression increased GATA1 expression, while HIF1? knockdown by RNA interference decreased GATA1 expression. In silico analysis revealed one potential hypoxia response element (HRE). The results from reporter gene and mutation analysis suggested that this element is necessary for hypoxic response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR showed that the putative HRE was recognized and bound by HIF1 in vivo. These results demonstrate that the up-regulation of GATA1 during hypoxia is directly mediated by HIF1.The mRNA expression of some erythroid differentiation markers was increased under hypoxic conditions, but decreased with RNA interference of HIF1? or GATA1. Flow cytometry analysis also indicated that hypoxia, desferrioxamine or CoCl(2) induced expression of erythroid surface markers CD71 and CD235a, while expression repression of HIF1? or GATA1 by RNA interference led to a decreased expression of CD235a. These results suggested that HIF1-mediated GATA1 up-regulation promotes erythropoiesis in order to satisfy the needs of an organism under hypoxic conditions.