Project description:Fargesia is ecologically and economically important in mountainous forests. Many Fargesia species are also important sources of food for some endangered animals such as the giant panda. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed Fargesia as a polyphyletic group despite some unclear lineage affinities. In the present study, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Fargesia and its allies, including Thamnocalamus, Arundinaria (incl. Bashania), Yushania, Indocalamus, Ampelocalamus and Phyllostachys, from a plastome sequence matrix that contained 20 Fargesia and five Yushania species as ingroups, 16 species from nine other bamboo genera plus Oryza sativa and Zea mays as outgroups. Fargesia and its allies were broken into eight clades. Several Fargesia species were clustered into the Thamnocalamus clade and the Drepanostachyum + Himalayacalamus clade that rendered the polyphyly of Fargesia. The remaining six clades, including the Fargesia spathe clade, the Phyllostachys clade, Arundinaria fargesii, the Ampelocalamus clade, the Fargesia grossa clade, and the Fargesia macclureana clade, were identified. Molecular phylogenetic analyses supported that Yushania should be included in Fargesia (s.l.) which had synapomorphy of expanded leaf sheaths in varying degree at the basis of inflorescences, and further divided into the Fargesia spathe clade, the Fargesia grossa clade, and the Fargesia macclureana clade. All sampled species of Yushania were nested within the Fargesia grossa clade. The probable model of the origin of the species in the Fargesia spathe clade with spathe-like leaf sheath syndrome was proposed. Moreover, the formation of the spathe-like leaf sheath syndrome may be correlated with cold climatic conditions in Quaternary. Our results provide new sight into the phylogenetic relationship within Fargesia.
Project description:The complete chloroplast genome of <i>Fargesia qinlingensis</i> (Poaceae) has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of <i>F</i>. <i>qinlingensis</i> obtained in this study was 139,640?bp in length, with a large single copy (LSC) region of 83,220?bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 12,826?bp, separated by two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 21,797?bp each. The GC content was 38.9%, and in the LSC, SSC, and IR regions were 37.0%, 33.2%, and 44.2%, respectively. A total of 130 genes were annotated, including 83 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 39 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The result of the phylogenetic analysis showed that <i>F</i>. <i>qinlingensis</i> was more closely related to the species of <i>F</i>. <i>denudata</i>.
Project description:Fargesia Franchet emend. Yi is closely allied with Thamnocalamus Munro but differs in many major morphological characteristics. Based on traditional morphological characters, it is difficult to differentiate these two genera. The current study measured 19 species in these two genera to determine whether variations in 12 categories of major characters are continuous. In addition, a self-organizing map (SOM) and cluster analysis were used together to reveal whether the known species of Fargesia represent discontinuous sampling of Thamnocalamus. The results show that 46 morphological characteristics exhibited high variation at the generic and species levels. In addition, the cluster analysis showed that 32 morphological characteristics of Thamnocalamus and Fargesia were divided between two species and well separated from the outgroup. Additionally, significant differences (P?<?0.01) were observed in the reproductive structures between these two genera. The unrooted dendrogram, which was based on the SOM neural network, shows the same results as the cluster analysis of morphological characteristics. These data indicate that Fargesia is not a result of discontinuous sampling of Thamnocalamus; thus, Fargesia should not be treated as a synonym for Thamnocalamus.
Project description:AIMS: Fargesia decurvata is closely allied with F. dracocephala and differs in 5 major characters (i.e. the culm sheath blade base shape, the width of the culm sheath blade base, the auricle shape, and the lower surface of leaf blade) in Fargesia. It is difficult to distinguish these two species because of existing of transitional statements of characters. The aims of this paper are to (i) investigate whether the variation of the characters is continuous or not; (ii) reveal whether the publishment of F. dracocephala was the result of discontinuous sampling of F. decurvata or not. METHODS: Ten populations of F. decurvata and F. dracocephala were investigated in their entire distribution (including type localities). The statements of 5 major characters were measured from 693 annual and 693 perennial culms of 231 individuals in 10 populations, and analyzed at population, individual and culm levels. UPGMA cluster analysis was carried out based on 29 characters from 10 populations of F. decurvata and F. dracocephala and 2 populations of F. qinlingensis as outgroup. The ITS sequences were also sequenced and analyzed. IMPORTANT FINDINGS: Five major characters exhibited great variation not only at population level, but at individual level within a population, even the culm level within an individual and in different parts of the same culm. Cluster analyses showed that 10 populations of F. decurvata and F. dracocephala were not divided into two species, but they were well separated with outgroup. There was no difference in floral organ between F. decurvata and F. dracocephala. MP and NJ trees based on ITS sequences showed the same results with the cluster analysis on morphological characters. All the facts indicated that the publishment of F. dracocephala was the result of discontinuous sampling of F. decurvata, and F. dracocephala should be treated as the synonym of F. decurvata.
Project description:White-rot basidiomycetes from the poorly studied residual polyporoid clade of Polyporales order Junghuhnia nitida (Pers.) Ryvarden and Steccherinum bourdotii Saliba & A. David grow as secondary xylotrohps on well decomposed woody materials. The main objective of the current study was to compare oxidative potential, growth, production of oxidative enzymes and laccase properties of J. nitida and S. bourdotii with that of typical primary xylotrohps Trametes hirsuta (Wulfen) Lloyd and Coriolopsis caperata (Berk.) Murrill, belonging to the core polyporoid clade. For the first time we report species J. nitida and S. bourdotii as active laccase producers. New laccases from J. nitida and S. bourdotii were purified and characterized. They had an identical molecular weight of 63 kDa and isoelectric points of 3.4 and 3.1, respectively. However, the redox potential of the T1 copper site for both J. nitida (610 mV) and S. bourdotii (640 mV) laccases was lower than those for T. hirsuta and C. caperata laccases. The new laccases showed higher temperature optima and better thermal stability than T. hirsuta and C. caperata laccases. Their half-lives were more than 40 min at 70 °C. The laccases from J. nitida and S. bourdotii showed higher affinity to syringyl-type phenolic compounds than T. hirsuta and C. caperata laccases. The oxidative potential of studied fungi as well as the properties of their laccases are discussed in terms of the fungal life-style.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia generally associated with oxidative stress. The present study aims at evaluating the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of methanol and hydroethanol extracts of the stem bark and leaves of Pricralima nitida and the Sonchus oleraceus whole plant respectively.The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) for free radical-scavenging properties of the extracts, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method in determining their phenol contents. The antidiabetic activity was tested in mice following streptozotocin diabetes induction, and selected oxidative stress markers (Malondialdehyde, Hydrogen peroxides and Catalase) were measured in order to evaluate the level of oxidative stress in treated animals.The in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH showed IC50 ranging from 0.19?±?0.08 to 1.00?±?0.06 mg/mL. The highest activity was obtained with the hydroethanol extracts of S. oleraceus (0.19 mg/mL and P. nitida (0.24 mg/mL). Polyphenol contents ranged from 182.25?±?16.76 to 684.62?±?46.66 ?g Eq Cat/g. The methanol extract of P. nitida showed the highest activity, followed by the hydroethanol extract of S. oleraceus (616.89?±?19.20 ?Eq Cat/g). The hydroethanol extract of whole plants (150 mg/Kg) and methanol leave extract of P. nitida (300 mg/Kg) exhibited significant antidiabetic activities with 39.40% and 38.48% glycaemia reduction, respectively. The measurement of stress markers in plasma, liver and kidney after administration of both extracts showed significant reduction in MDA and hydrogen peroxide levels, coupled with a substantial increase in catalase activity.These findings suggest that S. oleraceus whole plant and P. nitida leaves possess both antidiabetic and antioxidant properties, and therefore could be used as starting point for the development of herbal medicines and/or source of new drug molecules against diabetes.
Project description:Three new indole glycosides 22-deoxystrictosamide (1), 22-deoxystrictosamide N b-oxide (2) and vincosamide 2'-O-?-D-xylopyranoside-11-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), together with four known analogues were isolated from aqueous fraction of Strychnos nitida. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. All the alkaloids were tested for their cytotoxic activity, but they did not show any exciting result.