Project description:BACKGROUND:Aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanbourni) stress drastically influences the yield and quality of chrysanthemum, and grafting has been widely used to improve tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the effect of grafting on the resistance of chrysanthemum to aphids remains unclear. Therefore, we used the RNA-Seq platform to perform a de novo transcriptome assembly to analyze the self-rooted grafted chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium T. 'Hangbaiju') and the grafted Artermisia-chrysanthemum (grafted onto Artemisia scoparia W.) transcription response to aphid stress. RESULTS:The results showed that there were 1337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), among which 680 were upregulated and 667 were downregulated, in the grafted Artemisia-chrysanthemum compared to the self-rooted grafted chrysanthemum. These genes were mainly involved in sucrose metabolism, the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, the plant hormone signaling pathway and the plant-to-pathogen pathway. KEGG and GO enrichment analyses revealed the coordinated upregulation of these genes from numerous functional categories related to aphid stress responses. In addition, we determined the physiological indicators of chrysanthemum under aphid stress, and the results were consistent with the molecular sequencing results. All evidence indicated that grafting chrysanthemum onto A. scoparia W. upregulated aphid stress responses in chrysanthemum. CONCLUSION:In summary, our study presents a genome-wide transcript profile of the self-rooted grafted chrysanthemum and the grafted Artemisia-chrysanthemum and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of C. morifolium T. in response to aphid infestation. These data will contribute to further studies of aphid tolerance and the exploration of new candidate genes for chrysanthemum molecular breeding.
Project description:There has been a heated argument over self-incompatibilityof chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) among chrysanthemum breeders. In order to solve the argument, we investigated pistil receptivity, seed set, and compatible index of 24 chrysanthemum cultivars. It was found that the 24 cultivars averagely had 3.7-36.3 pollen grains germinating on stigmas at 24 hours after self-pollination through the fluorescence microscope using aniline blue staining method. However, only 10 of them produced self-pollinated seeds, and their seed sets and compatible indexes were 0.03-56.50% and 0.04-87.50, respectively. The cultivar "Q10-33-1" had the highest seed set (56.50%) and compatible index (87.50), but ten of its progeny had a wide range of separation in seed set (0-37.23%) and compatible index (0-68.65). The results indicated that most of chrysanthemum cultivars were self-incompatible, while a small proportion of cultivars were self-compatible. In addition, there is a comprehensive separation of self-incompatibility among progeny from the same self-pollinated self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar. Therefore, it is better to emasculate inflorescences during chrysanthemum hybridization breeding when no information concerning its self-incompatibility characteristics is available. However, if it is self-incompatible and propagated by vegetative methods, it is unnecessary to carry out emasculation when it is used as a female plant during hybridization breeding.
Project description:The generation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) flower color is mainly attributed to the accumulation of anthocyanins. Light is one of the key environmental factors that affect the anthocyanin biosynthesis, but the deep molecular mechanism remains elusive. In our previous study, a series of light-induced structural and regulatory genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in the chrysanthemum were identified using RNA sequencing. In the present study, differentially expressed proteins that are in response to light with the capitulum development of the chrysanthemum 'Purple Reagan' were further identified using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technique, and correlation between the proteomic and the transcriptomic libraries was analyzed. In general, 5106 raw proteins were assembled based on six proteomic libraries (three capitulum developmental stages × two light treatments). As many as 160 proteins were differentially expressed between the light and the dark libraries with 45 upregulated and 115 downregulated proteins in response to shading. Comparative analysis between the pathway enrichment and the gene expression patterns indicated that most of the proteins involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were downregulated after shading, which was consistent with the expression patterns of corresponding encoding genes; while five light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins were initially downregulated after shading, and their expressions were enhanced with the capitulum development thereafter. As revealed by correlation analysis between the proteomic and the transcriptomic libraries, GDSL esterase APG might also play an important role in light signal transduction. Finally, a putative mechanism of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in the chrysanthemum was proposed. This study will help us to clearly identify light-induced proteins associated with flower color in the chrysanthemum and to enrich the complex mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis for use in cultivar breeding.
Project description:The flowers of chrysanthemum species are used as a herbal tea and in traditional medicine. In addition, members of the genus have been selected to develop horticultural cultivars of diverse floral colors and capitulum forms. In this research, we investigated the phytochemical composition of eight gamma-irradiation mutant cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium and their original cultivars. The mutant chrysanthemum cultivars were generated by treatment with various doses of 60Co gamma irradiation of stem cuttings of three commercial chrysanthemum cultivars as follows: 'ARTI-Dark Chocolate' (50Gy), 'ARTI-Purple Lady' (30 Gy), and 'ARTI-Yellow Star' (50 Gy) derived from 'Noble Wine'; 'ARTI-Red Star' (50 Gy) and 'ARTI-Rising Sun' (30 Gy) from 'Pinky'; 'ARTI-Purple' (40 Gy) and 'ARTI-Queen' (30 Gy) from 'Argus'; and 'ARTI-Rollypop' (70 Gy) from 'Plaisir d'amour'. Quantitative analysis of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids in the flowers of the 12 chrysanthemum cultivars was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESIMS). Essential oils from the flowers of these cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mutant cultivars, 'ARTI-Dark Chocolate', 'ARTI-Purple Lady', 'ARTI-Purple', and 'ARTI-Queen' showed higher total amounts of flavonoid and phenolic acid compared with those of the respective original cultivars. The mutant cultivars, 'ARTI-Dark Chocolate', 'ARTI-Purple Lady' and 'ARTI-Purple', which produce purple to pink petals, contained more than two-times higher amounts of anthocyanins compared with those of their original cultivars. Of the mutant cultivars, 'ARTI-Yellow Star' in which petal color was changed to yellow, showed the greatest accumulation of carotenoids. Ninety-nine volatile compounds were detected, of which hydrocarbons and terpenoids were abundant in all cultivars analyzed. This is the first report that demonstrated the phytochemical analysis of novel chrysanthemum cultivars derived from C. morifolium hydrid using HPLC-DAD-ESIMS and GC-MS. These findings suggest that the selected mutant chrysanthemum cultivars show potential as a functional source of phytochemicals associated with the abundance of health-beneficial components, as well as good source for horticulture and pigment industries.
Project description:The generation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) flower color is mainly attributed to the accumulation of anthocyanins. In the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in chrysanthemum, although all of the structural genes have been cloned, the regulatory function of R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) genes, which play a crucial role in determining anthocyanin accumulation in many ornamental crops, still remains unclear. In our previous study, four light-induced R2R3-MYB TF genes in chrysanthemum were identified using transcriptomic sequencing. In the present study, we further investigated the regulatory functions of these genes via phylogenetic and alignment analyses of amino acid sequences, which were subsequently verified by phenotypic, pigmental, and structural gene expression analyses in transgenic tobacco lines. As revealed by phylogenetic and alignment analyses, CmMYB4 and CmMYB5 were phenylpropanoid and flavonoid repressor R2R3-MYB genes, respectively, while CmMYB6 was an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and CmMYB7 was involved in regulating flavonol biosynthesis. Compared with wild-type plants, the relative anthocyanin contents in the 35S:CmMYB4 and 35S:CmMYB5 tobacco lines significantly decreased (p < 0.05), while for 35S:CmMYB6 and 35S:CmMYB7, the opposite result was obtained. Both in the 35S:CmMYB4 and 35S:CmMYB5 lines, the relative expression of several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in tobacco was significantly downregulated (p < 0.05); on the contrary, several genes were upregulated in the 35S:CmMYB6 and 35S:CmMYB7 lines. These results indicate that CmMYB4 and CmMYB5 negatively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in chrysanthemum, while CmMYB6 and CmMYB7 play a positive role, which will aid in understanding the complex mechanism regulating floral pigmentation in chrysanthemum and the functional divergence of the R2R3-MYB gene family in higher plants.
Project description:Chrysanthemum morifolium is one of the most important global cut flower and pot plants, and has been cultivated worldwide. However, limited genomic resources are available and the molecular mechanisms involved in the two morphologically distinct floret developmental cycles in chrysanthemum remain unclear.The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum ray florets, disc florets and leaves were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In total, 16.9 G reads were assembled into 93,138 unigenes with an average length of 738 bp, of which 44,364 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 26,320, 22,304 and 13,949 unigenes were assigned to 54 gene ontology (GO) categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) categories, and 280 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, respectively. A total of 1863 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (1210 up-regulated and 653 down-regulated) were identified between ray florets and disc florets, including genes encoding transcription factors and protein kinases. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed on the DEGs to identify differences in the biological processes and pathways between ray florets and disc florets. The important regulatory genes controlling flower development and flower organ determination, as well as important functional genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, were identified, of which two leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase-encoding genes showed specific expression in ray florets. Lastly, reverse transcription quantitative PCR was conducted to validate the DEGs identified in our study.Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in patterns of gene expression and signaling pathways between ray florets and disc florets in Chrysanthemum morifolium. This study provided the first step to understanding the molecular mechanism of the differential development of ray florets and disc florets in chrysanthemum, and also provided valuable genomic resources for candidate genes applicable for the breeding of novel varieties in chrysanthemum.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chrysanthemum is an important ornamental plant all over the world. It is easily attacked by aphid, Macrosiphoniella sanbourni. The molecular mechanisms of plant defense responses to aphid are only partially understood. Here, we investigate the gene expression changes in response to aphid feeding in chrysanthemum leaf by RNA-Seq technology. RESULTS: Three libraries were generated from pooled leaf tissues of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'nannongxunzhang' that were collected at different time points with (Y) or without (CK) aphid infestations and mock puncture treatment (Z), and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 platform. A total of 7,363,292, 7,215,860 and 7,319,841 clean reads were obtained in library CK, Y and Z, respectively. The proportion of clean reads was >97.29% in each library. Approximately 76.35% of the clean reads were mapped to a reference gene database including all known chrysanthemum unigene sequences. 1,157, 527 and 340 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparison of CK-VS-Y, CK-VS-Z and Z-VS-Y, respectively. These DEGs were involved in phytohormone signaling, cell wall biosynthesis, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway and transcription factor regulatory networks, and so on. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in gene expression induced by aphid feeding are shown to be multifaceted. There are various forms of crosstalk between different pathways those genes belonging to, which would allow plants to fine-tune its defense responses.
Project description:We previously demonstrated that 20 mM sucrose promotes the upper axillary bud outgrowth in two-node stems of Chrysanthemum morifolium. In this study, we aimed to screen for potential genes involved in this process. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR analysis of sugar-related genes in the upper axillary bud of plants treated with 20 mM sucrose revealed the specific expression of the gene CmSWEET17. Expression of this gene was increased in the bud, as well as the leaves of C. morifolium, following exogenous sucrose treatment. CmSWEET17 was isolated from C. morifolium and a subcellular localization assay confirmed that the protein product was localized in the cell membrane. Overexpression of CmSWEET17 promoted upper axillary bud growth in the two-node stems treatment as compared with the wild-type. In addition, the expression of auxin transporter genes CmAUX1, CmLAX2, CmPIN1, CmPIN2, and CmPIN4 was upregulated in the upper axillary bud of CmSWEET17 overexpression lines, while indole-3-acetic acid content decreased. The results suggest that CmSWEET17 could be involved in the process of sucrose-induced axillary bud outgrowth in C. morifolium, possibly via the auxin transport pathway.