Project description:Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contributes to the formation and maintenance of soil aggregates, it is however remains unclear whether long-term intensive manure amendments alter soil aggregates stability and whether GRSP regulates these changes. Based on a three-decade long fertilization experiment in northeast China, this study examined the impact of long-term manure input on soil organic carbon (SOC), total and easily extractable GRSP (GRSPt and GRSPe) and their respective allocations in four soil aggregates (>2000 μm; 2000-250 μm; 250-53 μm; and <53 μm). The treatments include no fertilization (CK), low and high manure amendment (M1, M2), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK), and combined manure and chemical fertilizers (NPKM1, NPKM2). Though SOC, GRSPe and GRSPt in soil and SOC in each aggregate generally increased with increasing manure input, GRSPt and GRSPe in each aggregate showed varying changes with manure input. Both GRSP in macroaggregates (2000-250 μm) were significantly higher under low manure input, a pattern consistent with changes in soil aggregate stability. Constituting 38~49% of soil mass, macroaggregates likely contributed to the nonlinear changes of aggregate stability under manure amendments. The regulatory process of GRSP allocations in soil aggregates has important implications for manure management under intensive agriculture.
Project description:Different fertilization regimes can substantially influence soil fungal community composition, yet fewer studies try to control for the effects of nitrogen input. Here, we investigated the impact of fertilization with equal nitrogen upon soil properties and soil fungal diversity and community composition in the North China Plain in a long-term field experiment. Long-term (32 years) fertilization regimes were applied with equal amounts of nitrogen: no chemical fertilizer or organic manure; chemical fertilization only; organic manure fertilization only, and; combination of 1/2 chemical fertilizer and 1/2 organic manure. Then we investigated the influence of these four fertilization regimes to soil properties, fungal diversity and community composition. The results showed that applying organic manure significantly influenced soil properties. Illumina MiSeq sequencing and its analysis revealed that organic manure fertilization significantly changed soil fungal alpha diversity, but chemical fertilization did not. Although soil fungal community composition did not differ significantly among all the fertilization regimes at the phylum and class levels, they did show differences in the abundance of dominant fungi. Yet at the genus level, soil fungal community composition, abundance, and beta diversity was affected by all fertilization regimes. Application of organic manure also reduced the abundance of soil-born fungal pathogens such as Fusarium. Our results suggest that long-term application of organic manure could markedly improve soil properties, altering soil fungal community composition and its diversity. Moreover, organic manure fertilization could limit soil-born fungal diseases, to further contribute to soil ecosystem sustainability.
Project description:Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (P<0.05). The application of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (P<0.05). During the experimental period, the average AN and AP contents were highest in OM treatment (about 1.6 and 29.6 times of that in the CK, respectively) and second highest in NPK treatment (about 1.2 and 20.3 times of that in the CK). Unlike AN and AP, the highest value of AK content was observed in NPK treatments with 38.10 mg·kg(-1). Thus, these indicated that organic manure should be recommended to improve soil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region.
Project description:In this study, the effect of mineral fertilizer and organic manure were evaluated on soil microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity, bacterial and fungal community structure in a long-term (33 years) field experiment. Except for the mineral nitrogen fertilizer (N) treatment, long-term fertilization greatly increased soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and dehydrogenase activity. Organic manure had a significantly greater impact on SMBC and dehydrogenase activity, compared with mineral fertilizers. Bacterial and fungal community structure was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Long-term fertilization increased bacterial and fungal ribotype diversity. Total soil nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP), soil organic carbon (SOC) and available phosphorus (AP) had a similar level of influence on bacterial ribotypes while TN, SOC and AP had a larger influence than alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen (AHN) on fungal ribotypes. Our results suggested that long-term P-deficiency fertilization can significantly decrease soil microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity and bacterial diversity. N-fertilizer and SOC have an important influence on bacterial and fungal communities.
Project description:Manure application to agricultural soils is widely considered as a source of nutrients and a method of maintaining levels of soil organic carbon (SOC) to mitigate climate change. At present, it is still unclear which factors are responsible for the SOC stock dynamics. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between SOC stock changes and site characteristics, soil properties, experiment characteristics and manure characteristics. Overall, we included 101 studies with a total of 592 treatments. On average, the application of manure on agricultural soils increased SOC stocks by 35.4%, corresponding to 10.7 Mg ha?1. Manure applications in conventional tillage systems led to higher SOC stocks (+?2.2 Mg ha?1) than applications under reduced tillage. Soil organic carbon increase upon manure application was higher in soils under non-tropical climate conditions (+?2.7 Mg ha?1) compared to soils under sub-tropical climate. Larger SOC increases after manure application were achieved in intermediate and shallow topsoils (in 0–15 cm by 9.5 Mg ha?1 and in 16–20 cm by 13.6 Mg ha?1), but SOC stocks were also increased in deeper soils (>?20 cm 4.6 Mg ha?1), regardless of the tillage intensity. The highest relative SOC increase (+?48%) was achieved if the initial SOC was below 1% but the absolute SOC increased with increasing initial SOC. Clay soils showed higher SOC increase rates compared to sandy soils (+?3.1 Mg ha?1). Acidic soils showed comparable relative effects but a higher stock difference than neutral (+?5.1 Mg ha?1) and alkaline soils (+?5.1 Mg ha?1). The application of farmyard-, cattle- and pig manure showed the highest SOC increases (50%, 32% and 41%, respectively), while green manure and straw showed only minor effects. If manure applications were combined with additional mineral fertilizer, the SOC increases were higher (+?1.7 Mg ha?1) compared to manure alone. Higher applied amounts generally led to higher SOC stocks. However the annually applied amount is only important under conventional tillage, non-tropical climate conditions, and pH-neutral as well as SOC-rich or SOC-depleted soils and if no additional mineral fertilization is applied. Further studies should focus on the SOC dynamics under tropical climate conditions and factors influencing a potential carbon saturation. In both cases, the number of data was too small. For this reason, additional field studies should be conducted primarily in the tropics. On the other hand, long-term field trials should be re-assessed or newly established to specifically investigate potential saturation effects and long-term (>?20 years) fertilizer effects and carbon sequestration.
Project description:Organic waste products (OWP) application to crop lands makes possible nutrients recycling. However, it can result in long-term accumulation of trace elements (TE) in soils. The present study aimed at (i) assessing the impact of regular applications of urban composts and manure on the TE contents of topsoils and crops in a long-term field experiment, (ii) comparing the TE mass balances with the stock variations of TE in soils, and (iii) proposing a prospective evaluation of this practice, based on estimated soil safe threshold values and simulations of soil TE accumulation for 100 years. In the long-term field experiment, physico-chemical properties and TE contents (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) have been measured in OWP, soils, plants and leaching waters for the period 1998-2015, and used for mass balance calculations and long-term simulations of TE accumulations. The composts of green wastes and sludge (GWS) and of municipal solid waste (MSW) were the OWP with the largest TE contents, while the farmyard manure tended to have the lowest. Repeated application of OWP led to significant accumulation of Zn and Cu in the topsoil layer (not for Cr, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb), especially with GWS, without overpassing calculated protective threshold values. No effect of repeated application of OWP has been observed on TE contents in grains (wheat, maize, barley). The positive mass balance has been dominated by the input flux of TE through OWP and resulted in the observed increases of soil stocks for Cu and Zn. Prospective simulation of soil content evolution until 2100 showed that soil content reached 0.4 mg Cd kg<sup>-1</sup> soil (GWS, MSW), 38 mg Cu kg<sup>-1</sup> soil (GWS) and 109 mg Zn kg<sup>-1</sup> soil (GWS), which remained lower than protective threshold values.
Project description:Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000-250, 250-53, and <53 ?m) by dry- and wet-sieving. A laboratory incubation study of these separated particle-size fractions was used to evaluate the effect of long-term manure, in combination with/without chemical fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000-250 ?m > 250-53 ?m > 53 ?m fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 ?m fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient.
Project description:Soil microbial communities contain the highest level of prokaryotic diversity of any environment, and metagenomic approaches involving the extraction of DNA from soil can improve our access to these communities. Most analyses of soil biodiversity and function assume that the DNA extracted represents the microbial community in the soil, but subsequent interpretations are limited by the DNA recovered from the soil. Unfortunately, extraction methods do not provide a uniform and unbiased subsample of metagenomic DNA, and as a consequence, accurate species distributions cannot be determined. Moreover, any bias will propagate errors in estimations of overall microbial diversity and may exclude some microbial classes from study and exploitation. To improve metagenomic approaches, investigate DNA extraction biases, and provide tools for assessing the relative abundances of different groups, we explored the biodiversity of the accessible community DNA by fractioning the metagenomic DNA as a function of (i) vertical soil sampling, (ii) density gradients (cell separation), (iii) cell lysis stringency, and (iv) DNA fragment size distribution. Each fraction had a unique genetic diversity, with different predominant and rare species (based on ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis [RISA] fingerprinting and phylochips). All fractions contributed to the number of bacterial groups uncovered in the metagenome, thus increasing the DNA pool for further applications. Indeed, we were able to access a more genetically diverse proportion of the metagenome (a gain of more than 80% compared to the best single extraction method), limit the predominance of a few genomes, and increase the species richness per sequencing effort. This work stresses the difference between extracted DNA pools and the currently inaccessible complete soil metagenome.
Project description:Manure, which contains large amounts of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), is widely used in agricultural soils and may lead to the evolution and dispersal of ARGs in the soil environment. In the present study, soils that received manure or chemical fertilizers for 15 years were sampled on the North China Plain (NCP), which is one of the primary areas of intensive agriculture in China. High-throughput quantitative PCR and sequencing technologies were employed to assess the effects of long-term manure or chemical fertilizer application on the distribution of ARGs and microbial communities. A total of 114 unique ARGs were successfully amplified from all soil samples. Manure application markedly increased the relative abundance and detectable numbers of ARGs, with up to 0.23 copies/16S rRNA gene and 81 unique ARGs. The increased abundance of ARGs in manure-fertilized soil was mainly due to the manure increasing the abundance of indigenous soil ARGs. In contrast, chemical fertilizers only moderately affected the diversity of ARGs and had no significant effect on the relative abundance of the total ARGs. In addition, manure application increased the abundance of mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which were significantly and positively correlated with most types of ARGs, indicating that horizontal gene transfer via MGEs may play an important role in the spread of ARGs. Furthermore, the application of manure and chemical fertilizers significantly affected microbial community structure, and variation partitioning analysis showed that microbial community shifts represented the major driver shaping the antibiotic resistome. Taken together, our results provide insight into the long-term effects of manure and chemical fertilization on the dissemination of ARGs in intensive agricultural ecosystems.
Project description:The intra-aggregate architecture of soil macroaggregates provides suitable microhabitats for nematodes to graze on microorganisms. However, it is not fully clear how nematodes and microbial communities interactively mediate soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover. Here, we aimed to illustrate the relationships between nematodes, microbial community, and SOC turnover in the macroaggregates of a red soil receiving long-term manure application. Soil macroaggregates (>2 mm) were sampled from an 11-year field experiment including four manure treatments: no manure (M0), low manure rate (M1), high manure rate (M2), and high manure rate with lime (M3). The abundances of nematodes and microbial communities were substantially increased under manure treatments. Bacterivores dominated under the M2 and M3 treatments, while plant parasites were enriched under the M1 treatment. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the ratio of bacteria to fungi significantly increased, but the ratio of Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacteria declined with the increasing manure addition. Random forest modeling showed that soil porosity had a primary effect on nematode assemblages, while pH and SOC contributed profoundly to the structure of the microbial community and carbon metabolic capacity. Structural equation modeling suggested that nematode grazing promoted carbon metabolic activities predominantly due to increased microbial biomass. Taken together, the mechanistic understanding of nematode-microorganism interactions may have important implications for improving soil fertility by nematode-mediated microbial processes.