Project description:Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses are doubled stranded DNA viruses capable of infecting eukaryotic cells. Since the discovery of Mimivirus and Pandoravirus, there has been no doubt about their extraordinary features compared to "classic" viruses. Recently, we reported the expansion of the proposed family Pithoviridae, with the description of Cedratvirus and Orpheovirus, two new viruses related to Pithoviruses. Studying the major capsid protein of Orpheovirus, we detected a homologous sequence in a mine drainage metagenome. The in-depth exploration of this metagenome, using the MG-Digger program, enabled us to retrieve up to 10 contigs with clear evidence of viral sequences. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses further extended our screening with the discovery in another marine metagenome of a second virus closely related to Orpheovirus IHUMI-LCC2. This virus is a misidentified virus confused with and annotated as a Rickettsiales bacterium. It presents a partial genome size of about 170 kbp.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The glucuronoyl esterase enzymes of wood-degrading fungi (Carbohydrate Esterase family 15; CE15) form part of the hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic enzyme systems that break down plant biomass, and have possible applications in biotechnology. Homologous enzymes are predicted in the genomes of several bacteria, however these have been much less studied than their fungal counterparts. Here we describe the recombinant production and biochemical characterization of a bacterial CE15 enzyme denoted MZ0003, which was identified by in silico screening of a prokaryotic metagenome library derived from marine Arctic sediment. MZ0003 has high similarity to several uncharacterized gene products of polysaccharide-degrading bacterial species, and phylogenetic analysis indicates a deep evolutionary split between these CE15s and fungal homologs.<h4>Results</h4>MZ0003 appears to differ from previously-studied CE15s in some aspects. Some glucuronoyl esterase activity could be measured by qualitative thin-layer chromatography which confirms its assignment as a CE15, however MZ0003 can also hydrolyze a range of other esters, including p-nitrophenyl acetate, which is not acted upon by some fungal homologs. The structure of MZ0003 also appears to differ as it is predicted to have several large loop regions that are absent in previously studied CE15s, and a combination of homology-based modelling and site-directed mutagenesis indicate its catalytic residues deviate from the conserved Ser-His-Glu triad of many fungal CE15s. Taken together, these results indicate that potentially unexplored diversity exists among bacterial CE15s, and this may be accessed by investigation of the microbial metagenome. The combination of low activity on typical glucuronoyl esterase substrates, and the lack of glucuronic acid esters in the marine environment suggest that the physiological substrate of MZ0003 and its homologs is likely to be different from that of related fungal enzymes.
Project description:The metagenome skimming approach, i.e. low coverage shotgun sequencing of multi-species assemblages and subsequent reconstruction of individual genomes, is increasingly used for in-depth genomic characterization of ecological communities. This approach is a promising tool for reconstructing genomes of facultative symbionts, such as lichen-forming fungi, from metagenomic reads. However, no study has so far tested accuracy and completeness of assemblies based on metagenomic sequences compared to assemblies based on pure culture strains of lichenized fungi. Here we assembled the genomes of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea based on metagenomic sequences derived from whole lichen thalli. We extracted fungal contigs using two different taxonomic binning methods, and performed gene prediction on the fungal contig subsets. We then assessed quality and completeness of the metagenome-based assemblies using genome assemblies as reference which are based on pure culture strains of the two fungal species. Our comparison showed that we were able to reconstruct fungal genomes from uncultured lichen thalli, and also cover most of the gene space (86-90%). Metagenome skimming will facilitate genome mining, comparative (phylo)genomics, and population genetics of lichen-forming fungi by circumventing the time-consuming, sometimes unfeasible, step of aposymbiotic cultivation.
Project description:Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are plant root symbionts that play key roles in plant growth and soil fertility. They are obligate biotrophic fungi that form coenocytic multinucleated hyphae and spores. Numerous studies have shown that diverse microorganisms live on the surface of and inside their mycelia, resulting in a metagenome when whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data are obtained from sequencing AMF cultivated in vivo. The metagenome contains not only the AMF sequences, but also those from associated microorganisms. In this study, we introduce a novel bioinformatics program, Spore-associated Symbiotic Microbes (SeSaMe), designed for taxonomic classification of short sequences obtained by next-generation DNA sequencing. A genus-specific usage bias database was created based on amino acid usage and codon usage of a three consecutive codon DNA 9-mer encoding an amino acid trimer in a protein secondary structure. The program distinguishes between coding sequence (CDS) and non-CDS, and classifies a query sequence into a genus group out of 54 genera used as reference. The mean percentages of correct predictions of the CDS and the non-CDS test sets at the genus level were 71% and 50% for bacteria, 68% and 73% for fungi (excluding AMF), and 49% and 72% for AMF (Rhizophagus irregularis), respectively. SeSaMe provides not only a means for estimating taxonomic diversity and abundance but also the gene reservoir of the reference taxonomic groups associated with AMF. Therefore, it enables users to study the symbiotic roles of associated microorganisms. It can also be applicable to other microorganisms as well as soil metagenomes. SeSaMe is freely available at www.fungalsesame.org.
Project description:We report data associated with the identification of three polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase genes (phaC) isolated from the marine bacteria metagenome of Aaptos aaptos marine sponge in the waters of Bidong Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Our data describe the extraction of bacterial metagenome from sponge tissue, measurement of purity and concentration of extracted metagenome, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated amplification using degenerate primers targeting Class I and II phaC genes, sequencing at First BASE Laboratories Sdn Bhd, and phylogenetic analysis of identified and known phaC genes. The partial nucleotide sequences were aligned, refined, compared with the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) databases, and released online in GenBank. The data include the identified partial putative phaC and their GenBank accession numbers, which are Rhodocista sp. phaC (MF457754), Pseudomonas sp. phaC (MF437016), and an uncultured bacterium AR5-9d_16 phaC (MF457753).
Project description:Heterotrophic microbes are critical components of aquatic food webs. Linkages between populations and the substrates they utilize are not well defined. We present the metagenome of microbial communities from the coastal Pacific Ocean exposed to various nutrient additions in order to better understand substrate utilization and partitioning in this environment.
Project description:Reconstructing the genomes of microbial community members is key to the interpretation of shotgun metagenome samples. Genome binning programs deconvolute reads or assembled contigs of such samples into individual bins. However, assessing their quality is difficult due to the lack of evaluation software and standardized metrics. Here, we present Assessment of Metagenome BinnERs (AMBER), an evaluation package for the comparative assessment of genome reconstructions from metagenome benchmark datasets. It calculates the performance metrics and comparative visualizations used in the first benchmarking challenge of the initiative for the Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation (CAMI). As an application, we show the outputs of AMBER for 11 binning programs on two CAMI benchmark datasets. AMBER is implemented in Python and available under the Apache 2.0 license on GitHub.
Project description:The <i>Tara Oceans</i> Expedition has provided large, publicly-accessible microbial metagenomic datasets from a circumnavigation of the globe. Utilizing several size fractions from the samples originating in the Mediterranean Sea, we have used current assembly and binning techniques to reconstruct 290 putative draft metagenome-assembled bacterial and archaeal genomes, with an estimated completion of ?50%, and an additional 2,786 bins, with estimated completion of 0-50%. We have submitted our results, including initial taxonomic and phylogenetic assignments, for the putative draft genomes to open-access repositories for the scientific community to use in ongoing research.
Project description:Metagenomic analyses of marine viruses generate an overview of viral genes present in a sample, but the percentage of the resulting sequence fragments that can be reassembled is low and the phenotype of the virus from which a given sequence derives is usually unknown. In this study, we employed physical fractionation to characterize the morphological and genomic traits of a subset of uncultivated viruses from a natural marine assemblage. Viruses from K?ne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i were fractionated by equilibrium buoyant density centrifugation in a cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient, and one fraction from the CsCl gradient was then further fractionated by strong anion-exchange chromatography. One of the fractions resulting from this two-dimensional separation appeared to be dominated by only a few virus types based on genome sizes and morphology. Sequences generated from a shotgun clone library of the viruses in this fraction were assembled into significantly more numerous contigs than have been generated with previous metagenomic investigations of whole DNA viral assemblages with comparable sequencing effort. Analysis of the longer contigs (up to 6.5 kb) assembled from our metagenome allowed us to assess gene arrangement in this subset of marine viruses. Our results demonstrate the potential for physical fractionation to facilitate sequence assembly from viral metagenomes and permit linking of morphological and genomic data for uncultivated viruses.
Project description:Laccases are members of the blue multi-copper oxidase family that can oxidize a wide range of aromatic compounds. A new bacterial laccase (Lac15) has recently been obtained from a marine microbial metagenome from the South China Sea and characterized. In this work, recombinant Lac15 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.2?Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.41, b = 91.36, c = 86.157?Å, ? = 112.10°.