Project description:Cortical thickness has been investigated since the beginning of the 20th century, but we do not know how similar the cortical thickness profiles among humans are. In this study, the local similarity of cortical thickness profiles was investigated using sliding window methods. Here, we show that approximately 5% of the cortical thickness profiles are similarly expressed among humans while 45% of the cortical thickness profiles show a high level of heterogeneity. Therefore, heterogeneity is the rule, not the exception. Cortical thickness profiles of somatosensory homunculi and the anterior insula are consistent among humans, while the cortical thickness profiles of the motor homunculus are more variable. Cortical thickness profiles of homunculi that code for muscle position and skin stimulation are highly similar among humans despite large differences in sex, education, and age. This finding suggests that the structure of these cortices remains well preserved over a lifetime. Our observations possibly relativize opinions on cortical plasticity.
Project description:Tractable experimental model that accounts for inter-tumor molecular heterogeneity is a key element of anti-cancer drug development. Hepatocellular carcinoma is known to exhibit highly heterogeneous molecular aberrations across the tumors, including somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations. Previous studies showed that molecular tumor subtypes determined by transcriptome, as a comprehensive functional readout, are reproducibly observed across global patient populations irrespective of geographic and etiological variations. Here we demonstrate that transcriptomic hepatocellular carcinoma subtypes, S1 and S2, determined by our previous transcriptome meta-analysis of multiple clinical hepatocellular carcinoma cohorts, are presented in a panel of hepatoma cell lines widely used by the research community. Interestingly, cell line that resembles gene expression pattern of S3 subtype, representing less aggressive tumors, was not identified in the panel. MYC pathway-activated S2-like cell lines showed higher sensitivity to a small molecule BET bromodomain inhibitor, (+)-JQ1, which has anti-MYC activity. These results support the use of hepatoma cell lines as models to evaluate molecular subtype-specific drug response, which is expected to lead to development of tailored, precision care of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.