Project description:Adipose stem cell (ASC) differentiation is necessary for the proper maintenance and function of adipose tissue. The procurement and characterization of multipotent ASCs has enabled investigation into the molecular determinants driving human adipogenesis. Here, the transcription factor MYC was identified as a significant regulator of ASC differentiation. Expression of MYC transcript and protein was found to accumulate during the initial course of differentiation. Loss-of-function analysis using siRNA mediated knockdown of MYC demonstrated inhibition of hormonally stimulated adipogenesis. MYC exhibited an early and sustained expression pattern that preceded down regulation of key suppressor genes, as well as induction of transcriptional and functional effectors. Glucocorticoid stimulation was identified as a necessary component for MYC induction and was found to impact adipogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Global gene expression analysis of MYC knockdown in ASC enriched for functional pathways related to cell adhesion, cytoskeletal remodeling, and transcriptional components of adipogenesis. These results identify a functional role for MYC in promotion of multipotent ASC to the adipogenic lineage.
Project description:The developmental origins of obesity hypothesis posits a multifaceted contribution of factors to the fetal origins of obesity and metabolic disease. Adipocyte hyperplasia in gestation and early childhood may result in predisposition for obesity later in life. Rodent in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that some chemicals may directly affect adipose progenitor cell differentiation, but the human relevance of these findings is unclear. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is the master regulator of adipogenesis. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) isolated from adipose tissue express endogenous isoforms of PPARG and represent a biologically relevant cell-type for evaluating activity of PPARG ligands. Here, a multi-endpoint approach based on a phenotypic adipogenesis assay was applied to screen a set of 60 chemical compounds identified in ToxCast Phase I as PPARG active (49) or inactive (11). Chemicals showing activity in the adipogenesis screen were further evaluated in a series of 4 orthogonal assays representing 7 different key events in PPARG-dependent adipogenesis, including gene transcription, protein expression, and adipokine secretion. An siRNA screen was also used to evaluate PPARG-dependence of the adipogenesis phenotype. A universal concentration-response design enabled inter-assay comparability and implementation of a weight-of-evidence approach for bioactivity classification. Collectively, a total of 14/49 (29%) prioritized chemicals were identified with moderate-to-strong activity for human adipogenesis. These results provide the first integrated screening approach of prioritized ToxCast chemicals in a human stem cell model of adipogenesis and provide insight into the capacity of PPARG-activating chemicals to modulate early life programming of adipose tissue.
Project description:MYC is induced early in human adipose stem cells in response to a standard MDIR adipogenic cocktail. The objective of this experiment was to identify key gene networks impacted by MYC loss-of-function in a mixed donor pool of human derived adipose stem cells. Microarray analysis was used to identify up- and -down regulated genes in control vs MYC knockdown adipose stem cells in response to adipogenic stimulus Two sets of MYC siRNA oligos (pooled and s9129) were used to knockdown MYC 72 hours prior to induction of adipogenesis. Non-targeting siRNA was used as a control. Samples were induced to differentiate for 72 hours to assess early gene expression changes. Control samples not exposed to adipogenic cocktail were included as a reference. 3 independent replicates were run for each sample.
Project description:Adipose tissue is a key determinant of whole-body metabolism and energy homeostasis. Unravelling the transcriptional regulatory process during adipogenesis is therefore highly relevant from a biomedical perspective. In these studies, zinc finger protein B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) was demonstrated to have a role in early adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Bcl6 is enriched in preadipose versus non-preadipose fibroblasts and shows upregulated expression in the early stage of adipogenesis. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that Bcl6 acts as a key regulator of adipose commitment and differentiation both in vitro and ex vivo RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bcl6 in C3H10T1/2 cells greatly inhibited adipogenic potential, whereas Bcl6 overexpression enhanced adipogenic differentiation. This transcription factor also directly or indirectly targets and controls the expression of some early and late adipogenic regulators (i.e. Zfp423, Zfp467, KLF15, C/EBP?, C/EBP? and PPAR?). We further identified that Bcl6 transactivated the signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), which was determined as a required factor for adipogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of STAT1 rescued the impairment of adipogenic commitment and differentiation induced by Bcl6 knockdown in C3H10T1/2 cells, thereby confirming that STAT1 is a downstream direct target of Bcl6. This study identifies Bcl6 as a positive transcriptional regulator of early adipose commitment.
Project description:Obesity contributes significantly to the global health burden. A better understanding of adipogenesis, the process of fat formation, may lead to the discovery of novel treatment strategies. However, it is of concern that the regulation of adipocyte differentiation has predominantly been studied using the murine 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line and murine experimental animal models. Translation of these findings to the human setting requires confirmation using experimental models of human origin. The ability of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into adipocytes is an attractive model to study adipogenesis in vitro. Differences in the ability of MSCs isolated from different sources to undergo adipogenic differentiation, may be useful in investigating elements responsible for regulating adipogenic differentiation potential. Genes involved may be divided into three broad categories: early, intermediate and late-stage regulators. Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is an early negative regulator of adipogenic differentiation. In this review, we briefly discuss the adipogenic differentiation potential of MSCs derived from two different sources, namely adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) and Wharton's Jelly derived stromal/stem cells (WJSCs). We then discuss the function and suggested mechanisms of action of Pref-1 in regulating adipogenesis, as well as current findings regarding Pref-1's role in human adipogenesis.
Project description:The environmental obesogen hypothesis proposes that pre- and postnatal exposure to environmental chemicals contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Tributyltin (TBT) is an agonist of both retinoid X receptor (RXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Activation of these receptors can elevate adipose mass in adult mice exposed to the chemical in utero. Here we show that TBT sensitizes human and mouse multipotent stromal stem cells derived from white adipose tissue [adipose-derived stromal stem cells (ADSCs)] to undergo adipogenesis. In vitro exposure to TBT, or the PPARgamma activator rosiglitazone increases adipogenesis, cellular lipid content, and expression of adipogenic genes. The adipogenic effects of TBT and rosiglitazone were blocked by the addition of PPARgamma antagonists, suggesting that activation of PPARgamma mediates the effect of both compounds on adipogenesis. ADSCs from mice exposed to TBT in utero showed increased adipogenic capacity and reduced osteogenic capacity with enhanced lipid accumulation in response to adipogenic induction. ADSCs retrieved from animals exposed to TBT in utero showed increased expression of PPARgamma target genes such as the early adipogenic differentiation gene marker fatty acid-binding protein 4 and hypomethylation of the promoter/enhancer region of the fatty acid-binding protein 4 locus. Hence, TBT alters the stem cell compartment by sensitizing multipotent stromal stem cells to differentiate into adipocytes, an effect that could likely increase adipose mass over time.
Project description:Inappropriate expansion of the adipose cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is a characteristic of hypertrophic obesity and of individuals with genetic predisposition for T2D (first-degree relatives; FDR). It is associated with insulin resistance, a dysfunctional, adipose tissue and reduced adipogenesis. We examined the regulation of adipogenesis in human SAT precursor cells and found ZNF521 to be a critical regulator of early adipogenic commitment and precursor cells leaving the cell cycle. However, neither altered upstream signalling nor lack of SAT progenitor cells could explain the reduced adipogenesis in hypertrophic obesity. Instead, we show that progenitor cells undergoing poor differentiation are characterized by senescence, inability to suppress p53/P16INK4 and secretion of factors reducing adipogenesis in non-senescent cells. We found aging, FDR and established T2D to be associated with increased progenitor cell senescence, reduced adipogenesis and hypertrophic expansion of the SAT adipose cells.
Project description:The differentiation of adipose stem/progenitor cells (ASCs) into adipocytes contributes to adipose tissue expansion in obesity. This process is regulated by numerous signalling pathways including MAPK signalling. In the present study, we show that weight loss (WL) interventions induce upregulation of Sprouty1 (SPRY1), a negative regulator of MAPK signalling, in human ASCs and elucidate the role of the Sprouty1/MAPK interaction for adipogenic differentiation. We found that the Sprouty1 protein levels are low in proliferating ASCs, increasing in density arrested ASCs at the onset of adipogenic differentiation and decreasing in the course of adipogenesis. Knock-down (KD) of Sprouty1 by RNA interference led to elevated MAPK activity and reduced expression of the early adipogenic transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBP β), concomitant with an abrogation of adipogenesis. Intriguingly, co-treatment of Sprouty1 KD ASCs with differentiation medium and the pharmacological MEK inhibitor U0126 blunted ERK phosphorylation; however, failed to rescue adipogenic differentiation. Thus, the effects of the Sprouty1 KD are not reversed by inhibiting MAPK signalling although the inhibition of MAPK signalling by U0126 did not prevent adipogenic differentiation in wild type ASCs. In conclusion, we show that Sprouty1 is induced after WL in ASCs of formerly obese people acting as a negative regulator of MAPK signalling, which is necessary to properly trigger adipogenesis at early stages by a C/EBP β dependent mechanism.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In severe obesity, as well as in normal development, the growth of adipose tissue is the result of an increase in adipocyte size and numbers, which is underlain by the stimulation of adipogenic differentiation of precursor cells. A better knowledge of the pathways that regulate adipogenesis is therefore essential for an improved understanding of adipose tissue expansion. As microRNAs (miRNAs) have a critical role in many differentiation processes, our study aimed to identify the role of miRNA-mediated gene silencing in the regulation of adipogenic differentiation. RESULTS: We used deep sequencing to identify small RNAs that are differentially expressed during adipogenesis of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. This approach revealed the un-annotated miR-642a-3p as a highly adipocyte-specific miRNA. We then focused our study on the miR-30 family, which was also up-regulated during adipogenic differentiation and for which the role in adipogenesis had not yet been elucidated. Inhibition of the miR-30 family blocked adipogenesis, whilst over-expression of miR-30a and miR-30d stimulated this process. We additionally showed that both miR-30a and miR-30d target the transcription factor RUNX2, and stimulate adipogenesis via the modulation of this major regulator of osteogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data suggest that the miR-30 family plays a central role in adipocyte development. Moreover, as adipose tissue-derived stem cells can differentiate into either adipocytes or osteoblasts, the down-regulation of the osteogenesis regulator RUNX2 represents a plausible mechanism by which miR-30 miRNAs may contribute to adipogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Multipotent stem cells exist within adipose tissue throughout life. An abnormal recruitment of these adipose precursor cells could participate to hyperplasia of adipose tissue observed in severe obesity or to hypoplasia of adipose tissue observed in lipodystrophy. Therefore, pharmacological molecules that control the pool of stem cells in adipose tissue are of great interest. Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK) 3 has been previously described as involved in differentiation of preadipose cells and might be a potential therapeutic target to modulate proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte precursors. However, the impact of GSK3 inhibition on human adipose-derived stem cells remained to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate GSK3 as a possible target for pharmacological inhibition of stem cell adipogenesis. To reach this goal, we studied the effects of pharmacological inhibitors of GSK3, i.e. lithium chloride (LiCl) and BIO on proliferation and adipocyte differentiation of multipotent stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. RESULTS: Our results showed that GSK3 inhibitors inhibited proliferation and clonogenicity of human stem cells, strongly suggesting that GSK3 inhibitors could be potent regulators of the pool of adipocyte precursors in adipose tissue. The impact of GSK3 inhibition on differentiation of hMADS cells was also investigated. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiations were inhibited upon hMADS treatment with BIO. Whereas a chronic treatment was required to inhibit osteogenesis, a treatment that was strictly restricted to the early step of differentiation was sufficient to inhibit adipogenesis. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated the feasibility of a pharmacological approach to regulate adipose-derived stem cell function and that GSK3 could represent a potential target for controlling adipocyte precursor pool under conditions where fat tissue formation is impaired.