Project description:Persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) elicits chronic inflammation and aberrant epithelial cell proliferation, which increases the risk of gastric cancer. Here we examine the ability of microRNAs to modulate gastric cell proliferation in response to persistent Hp infection and find that epigenetic silencing of miR-210 plays a key role in gastric disease progression. Importantly, DNA methylation of the miR-210 gene is increased in Hp-positive human gastric biopsies as compared with Hp-negative controls. Moreover, silencing of miR-210 in gastric epithelial cells promotes proliferation. We identify STMN1 and DIMT1 as miR-210 target genes and demonstrate that inhibition of miR-210 expression augments cell proliferation by activating STMN1 and DIMT1. Together, our results highlight inflammation-induced epigenetic silencing of miR-210 as a mechanism of induction of chronic gastric diseases, including cancer, during Hp infection.
Project description:Persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) elicits chronic inflammation and aberrant epithelial cell proliferation, which increases the risk of gastric cancer. We examined the ability of microRNAs to modulate gastric cell proliferation in response to persistent Hp infection and found that epigenetic silencing of miR-210 plays a key role in gastric disease progression. Importantly, DNA methylation of the miR-210 gene was increased in Hp-positive human gastric biopsies as compared to Hp-negative controls. Moreover silencing of miR-210 in gastric epithelial cells promoted proliferation. We identified STMN1 and DIMT1 as miR-210 target genes and demonstrated that inhibition of miR-210 expression augmented cell proliferation by activating STMN1 and DIMT1. Together, our results highlight inflammation-induced epigenetic silencing of miR-210 as a mechanism of induction of chronic gastric diseases, including cancer, during Hp infection. To identify miR-210 targets in gastric cells, whole transcriptome analysis of AGS and MKN45 cells transfected with pre-miR-210 was conducted using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array.
Project description:BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs, post-transcriptional regulators of eukaryotic gene expression, are implicated in host defense against pathogens. Viruses and bacteria have evolved strategies that suppress microRNA functions, resulting in a sustainable infection. In this work we report that Helicobacter pylori, a human stomach-colonizing bacterium responsible for severe gastric inflammatory diseases and gastric cancers, downregulates an embryonic stem cell microRNA cluster in proliferating gastric epithelial cells to achieve cell cycle arrest. RESULTS: Using a deep sequencing approach in the AGS cell line, a widely used cell culture model to recapitulate early events of H. pylori infection of gastric mucosa, we reveal that hsa-miR-372 is the most abundant microRNA expressed in this cell line, where, together with hsa-miR-373, it promotes cell proliferation by silencing large tumor suppressor homolog 2 (LATS2) gene expression. Shortly after H. pylori infection, miR-372 and miR-373 synthesis is highly inhibited, leading to the post-transcriptional release of LATS2 expression and thus, to a cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition. This downregulation of a specific cell-cycle-regulating microRNA is dependent on the translocation of the bacterial effector CagA into the host cells, a mechanism highly associated with the development of severe atrophic gastritis and intestinal-type gastric carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: These data constitute a novel example of host-pathogen interplay involving microRNAs, and unveil the couple LATS2/miR-372 and miR-373 as an unexpected mechanism in infection-induced cell cycle arrest in proliferating gastric cells, which may be relevant in inhibition of gastric epithelium renewal, a major host defense mechanism against bacterial infections.
Project description:Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and the resulting gastric inflammation is regarded as the strongest risk factor for gastric carcinogenesis and progression. NF-?B plays an important role in linking H. pylori-mediated inflammation to cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we find that H. pylori infection induces miR-223-3p expression in H. pylori CagA-dependent manner. NF-?B stimulates miR-223-3p expression via directly binding to the promoter of miR-223-3p and is required for H. pylori CagA-mediated upregulation of miR-223-3p. miR-223-3p promotes the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells by directly targeting ARID1A and decreasing its expression. Furthermore, miR-223-3p/ARID1A axis is involved in CagA-induced cell proliferation and migration. In the clinical setting, the level of miR-223-3p is upregulated, while ARID1A is downregulated significantly in human gastric cancer tissues compared with the corresponding noncancerous tissues. The expression level of miR-223-3p is significantly higher in H. pylori-positive gastric cancer tissues than that in H. pylori-negative tissues. Moreover, a negative correlation between miR-223-3p and ARID1A expression is found in the gastric cancer tissues. Taken together, our findings suggested NF-?B/miR-223-3p/ARID1A axis may link the process of H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation to gastric cancer, thereby providing a new insight into the mechanism underlying H. pylori-associated gastric diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The molecular mechanism between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric cancer remained largely unknown. In this study, we determined the role of miRNA in H. pylori induced gastric cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS:We found that miR-204 was decreased in H. pylori positive tissues by qRT-PCR. Knockdown of miR-204 enhanced the invasion and proliferation ability of gastric cancer cells in vitro. Luciferase assay revealed that SOX4 was target gene of miR-204, which was found up-regulated in H. pylori positive tissues. Down-regulation of miR-204 and over-expression of SOX4 promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. CONCLUSION:Taken together, our findings demonstrated that miR-204 may act as a tumor suppressor in H. pylori induced gastric cancer by targeting SOX4.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with an inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa, leading to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric carcinoma and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Recent studies have shown that apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells is increased during H. pylori infection. Apoptosis induced by microbial infections are factors implicated in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. The enhanced gastric epithelial cell apoptosis in H. pylori infection has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis and gastric pathology. In addition to directly triggering apoptosis, H. pylori induces sensitivity to tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells via modulation of TRAIL apoptosis signaling. Moreover, H. pylori infection induces infiltration of T lymphocytes and triggers inflammation to augment apoptosis. In H. pylori infection, there was significantly increased CCR6(+)CD3(+ )T-cell infiltration in the gastric mucosa, and the CCR6 ligand, CCL20 chemokine, was selectively expressed in inflamed gastric tissues. These results implicate that the interaction between CCL20 and CCR6 may play a role in recruiting T cells to the sites of inflammation in the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter infection. Through these mechanisms, chemokine-mediated T lymphocyte trafficking into inflamed epithelium is initiated and the mucosal injury in Helicobacter infection is induced. This article will review the recent novel findings on the interactions of H. pylori with diverse host epithelial signaling pathways and events involved in the initiation of gastric pathology, including gastric inflammation, mucosal damage and development of MALT lymphomas.
Project description:<i>Helicobacter pylori</i> (<i>H. pylori</i>) is a human gastric pathogen that has been linked to the development of several gastric pathologies, such as gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. In the gastric epithelium, the bacterium modifies many signaling pathways, resulting in contradictory responses that favor both proliferation and apoptosis. Consistent with such observations, <i>H. pylori</i> activates routes associated with cell cycle progression and cell cycle arrest. <i>H. pylori</i> infection also induces the hypoxia-induced factor HIF-1?, a transcription factor known to promote expression of genes that permit metabolic adaptation to the hypoxic environment in tumors and angiogenesis. Recently, however, also roles for HIF-1? in the repair of damaged DNA and inhibition of gene expression were described. Here, we investigated signaling pathways induced by <i>H. pylori</i> in gastric cells that favor HIF-1? expression and the consequences thereof in infected cells. Our results revealed that <i>H. pylori</i> promoted PI3K/mTOR-dependent HIF-1? induction, HIF-1? translocation to the nucleus, and activity as a transcription factor as evidenced using a reporter assay. Surprisingly, however, transcription of known HIF-1? effector genes evaluated by qPCR analysis, revealed either no change (LDHA and GAPDH), statistically insignificant increases SLC2A1 (GLUT-1) or greatly enhance transcription (VEGFA), but in an HIF-1?-independent manner, as quantified by PCR analysis in cells with shRNA-mediated silencing of HIF-1?. Instead, HIF-1? knockdown facilitated G1/S progression and increased Cyclin D1 protein half-life, via a post-translational pathway. Taken together, these findings link <i>H. pylori</i>-induced PI3K-mTOR activation to HIF-1? induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by a Cyclin D1-dependent mechanism. Thus, HIF-1? is identified here as a mediator between survival and cell cycle arrest signaling activated by <i>H. pylori</i> infection.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori are responsible for the induction of chronic gastric inflammation progressing to atrophy, metaplasia, and gastric cancer. The overexpression of Cathepsin X/Z (Ctsz) in H. pylori-infected mucosa and gastric cancer is mediated predominantly by an augmented migration of ctsz(-/-)positive macrophages and the up-regulation of Ctsz in tumor epithelium. To explore the Ctsz-function in the context of chronic inflammation and the development of preneoplastic lesions, we used Ctsz-deficient mice in a H. pylori gastritis model. Ctsz (-/-) and wild-type (wt) mice were infected with H. pylori strain SS1. The mice were sacrificed at 24, 36, and 50 weeks post infection (wpi). The stomach was removed, and gastric strips were snap-frozen or embedded and stained with H&E. Tissue sections were scored for epithelial lesions and inflammation. Ki-67 and F4/80 immunostaining were used to measure epithelial cell proliferation and macrophage infiltration, respectively. The upregulation of compensating cathepsins and cytokines were confirmed by Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR. SS1-infected wt and ctsz (-/-) mice showed strong inflammation, foveolar hyperplasia, atrophy, and cystically-dilated glands. However, at 50 wpi, ctsz (-/-) mice developed significantly more severe spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), showed enhanced epithelial proliferation, and higher levels of infiltrating macrophages. Induction of cytokines was higher and significantly prolonged in ctsz (-/-) mice compared to wt. Ctsz deficiency supports H. pylori-dependent development of chronic gastritis up to metaplasia, indicating a protective, but not proteolytic, function of Ctsz in inflammatory gastric disease.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most important factors that affect the development of gastric cancer, and its mechanism remains un-elucidated. Our present study found that, miR-30a is crucial for regulating the growth and migration of H. pylori infected gastric cancer in vitro by targeting COX-2 and BCL9. In details, double-stranded miR-30a precursor produced two single-stranded and matured miRNAs including miR-30a-3p and miR-30a-5p, which played significant biological functions in two different manners. First, miR-30a-3p inhibited COX-2 expression and regulated nuclear translocation of ?-catenin, and second, miR-30a-5p targeted BCL9 to regulate TCF/LEF promoter activity followed by affecting ?-catenin downstream target gene expression. In vivo, miR-30a knockout mice were successfully achieved using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology. Compared with H. pylori-infected wild-type mice, H. pylori-infected miR-30a knockout mice showed increased incidence of chronic gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis, atypical hyperplasia, and other precancerous lesions or adenocarcinoma manifestations in the antral or gastric mucosa of mice, as well as regulation of genes closely associated with tumor development. Taken together, miR-30a acts as a tumor suppressor by double-targeting COX-2 and BCL9, and significantly affects the development of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, shedding new light on the mechanisms underlying H. pylori-associated gastric cancer.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori cause chronic inflammation favouring gastric carcinogenesis, and its eradication may prevent malignant transformation. We evaluated whether H. pylori infection and its eradication modify the expression of inflammatory mediators in patients with chronic gastritis. Furthermore, we assessed whether microRNAs modulate inflammatory pathways induced by H. pylori and identified miRNA-gene interaction networks. mRNA and protein expression of TNFA, IL6, IL1B, IL12A, IL2 and TGFBRII and miRNAs miR-103a-3p, miR-181c-5p, miR-370-3p, miR-375 and miR-223-3p were evaluated in tissue samples from 20 patients with chronic gastritis H. pylori negative (Hp-) and 31 H. pylori positive (Hp+), before and three months after bacterium eradication therapy, in comparison with a pool of Hp- normal gastric mucosa. Our results showed that H. pylori infection leads to up-regulation of TNFA, IL6, IL12A and IL2 and down-regulation of miRNAs. Bacterium eradication reduces the expression of TNFA and IL6 and up-regulates TGFBRII and all investigated miRNAs, except miR-223-3p. Moreover, transcriptional profiles of inflammatory mediators and miRNAs after eradication are different from the non-infected group. Deregulated miRNA-mRNA interaction networks were observed in the Hp+ group before and after eradication. Therefore, miRNAs modulated cytokine expression in the presence of H. pylori and after its eradication, suggesting that miRNAs participate in the pathological process triggered by H. pylori in the gastric mucosa.