Project description:Populus trichocarpa is an important woody model organism whose entire genome has been sequenced. This resource has facilitated the annotation of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are short non-coding RNAs with critical regulatory functions. However, despite their developmental importance, P. trichocarpa miRNAs have yet to be annotated from numerous important tissues. Here we significantly expand the breadth of tissue sampling and sequencing depth for miRNA annotation in P. trichocarpa using high-throughput smallRNA (sRNA) sequencing. miRNA annotation was performed using three individual next-generation sRNA sequencing runs from separate leaves, xylem, and mechanically treated xylem, as well as a fourth run using a pooled sample containing vegetative apices, male flowers, female flowers, female apical buds, and male apical and lateral buds. A total of 276 miRNAs were identified from these datasets, including 155 previously unannotated miRNAs, most of which are P. trichocarpa specific. Importantly, we identified several xylem-enriched miRNAs predicted to target genes known to be important in secondary growth, including the critical reaction wood enzyme xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase and vascular-related transcription factors. This study provides a thorough genome-wide annotation of miRNAs in P. trichocarpa through deep sRNA sequencing from diverse tissue sets. Our data significantly expands the P. trichocarpa miRNA repertoire, which will facilitate a broad range of research in this major model system.
Project description:Populus simonii is an important tree in the genus Populus, widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere and having a long cultivation history. Although this species has ecologically and economically important values, its genome sequence is currently not available, hindering the development of new varieties with wider adaptive and commercial traits. Here, we report a chromosome-level genome assembly of P. simonii using PacBio long-read sequencing data aided by Illumina paired-end reads and related genetic linkage maps. The assembly is 441.38 Mb in length and contain 686 contigs with a contig N50 of 1.94 Mb. With the linkage maps, 336 contigs were successfully anchored into 19 pseudochromosomes, accounting for 90.2% of the assembled genome size. Genomic integrity assessment showed that 1,347 (97.9%) of the 1,375 genes conserved among all embryophytes can be found in the P. simonii assembly. Genomic repeat analysis revealed that 41.47% of the P. simonii genome is composed of repetitive elements, of which 40.17% contained interspersed repeats. A total of 45,459 genes were predicted from the P. simonii genome sequence and 39,833 (87.6%) of the genes were annotated with one or more related functions. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that P. simonii and Populus trichocarpa should be placed in different sections, contrary to the previous classification according to morphology. The genome assembly not only provides an important genetic resource for the comparative and functional genomics of different Populus species, but also furnishes one of the closest reference sequences for identifying genomic variants in an F1 hybrid population derived by crossing P. simonii with other Populus species.
Project description:Protein-coding genes are considered to be a dominant component of the eukaryotic transcriptome; however, many studies have shown that intergenic, non-coding transcripts also play an important role. Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) were found to play a vital role in human and Arabidopsis. However, lincRNAs and their regulatory roles remain poorly characterized in woody plants, especially Populus trichocarpa (P. trichocarpa). A large set of Populus RNA-Seq data were examined with high sequencing depth under control and drought conditions and a total of 2542 lincRNA candidates were identified. In total, 51 lincRNAs and 20 lincRNAs were identified as putative targets and target mimics of known Populus miRNAs, respectively. A total of 504 lincRNAs were found to be drought responsive, eight of which were confirmed by RT-qPCR. These findings provide a comprehensive view of Populus lincRNAs, which will enable in-depth functional analysis.
Project description:Illumina HiSeq2000 technology was used to generate mRNA profiles from the ectomycorrhizal fungi Laccaria bicolor colonizing roots of Populus trichocarpa. Samples were taken after 3 months of contact in order to identify mycorrhiza-regulated transcripts. 100bp reads were generated and aligned to the Populus trichocarpa (http://www.phytozome.net/poplar.php) reference genome. Overall design: mRNA profiles from Populus trichocarpa roots colonized by Laccaria bicolor for three months as well as from control roots were generated by using one lane of 1X100bp Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing per sample.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing (AS) of genes is an efficient means of generating variation in protein structure and function. AS variation has been observed between tissues, cell types, and different treatments in non-woody plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and rice. However, little is known about AS patterns in wood-forming tissues and how much AS variation exists within plant populations. RESULTS: Here we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to analyze the Populus trichocarpa (P. trichocarpa) xylem transcriptome in 20 individuals from different populations across much of its range in western North America. Deep transcriptome sequencing and mapping of reads to the P. trichocarpa reference genome identified a suite of xylem-expressed genes common to all accessions. Our analysis suggests that at least 36% of the xylem-expressed genes in P. trichocarpa are alternatively spliced. Extensive AS was observed in cell-wall biosynthesis related genes such as glycosyl transferases and C2H2 transcription factors. 27902 AS events were documented and most of these events were not conserved across individuals. Differences in isoform-specific read densities indicated that 7% and 13% of AS events showed significant differences between individuals within geographically separated southern and northern populations, a level that is in general agreement with AS variation in human populations. CONCLUSIONS: This genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing reveals high levels of AS in P. trichocarpa and extensive inter-individual AS variation. We provide the most comprehensive analysis of AS in P. trichocarpa to date, which will serve as a valuable resource for the plant community to study transcriptome complexity and AS regulation during wood formation.
Project description:The ages and sizes of a sex-determination region (SDR) are difficult to determine in non-model species. Due to the lack of recombination and enrichment of repetitive elements in SDRs, the quality of assembly with short sequencing reads is universally low. Unique features present in the SDRs help provide clues about how SDRs are established and how they evolve in the absence of recombination. Several Populus species have been reported with a male heterogametic configuration of sex (XX/XY system) mapped on chromosome 19, but the exact location of the SDR has been inconsistent among species, and thus far, none of these SDRs has been fully assembled in a genomic context. Here we identify the Y-SDR from a Y-linked contig directly from a long-read PacBio assembly of a Populus trichocarpa male individual. We also identified homologous gene sequences in the SDR of P. trichocarpa and the SDR of the W chromosome in Salix purpurea. We show that inverted repeats (IRs) found in the Y-SDR and the W-SDR are lineage-specific. We hypothesize that, although the two IRs are derived from the same orthologous gene within each species, they likely have independent evolutionary histories. Furthermore, the truncated inverted repeats in P. trichocarpa may code for small RNAs that target the homologous gene for RNA-directed DNA methylation. These findings support the hypothesis that diverse sex-determining systems may be achieved through similar evolutionary pathways, thereby providing a possible mechanism to explain the lability of sex-determination systems in plants in general.
Project description:The calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) transcription factor family plays an important role in normal plant growth and development, as well as in biotic and abiotic stress resistance. In this study, we identified seven CAMTA genes across the whole genome of Populus trichocarpa and analyzed the expression patterns of PtCAMTAs in the root and leaf tissues. Promoter cis-element analysis indicated that most CAMTA genes contained stress- or phytohormone-related cis-elements. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated indicated that PtCAMTAs were induced by mannitol, NaCl, cold stress, pathogenic infection with A. alternata, and phytohormone treatments with abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate. We analyzed the expression of homologous genes between P. trichocarpa and P. ussuriensis and alternative splicing forms of PtCAMTA genes under cold stress. We also performed a network interaction analysis for PtCAMTA proteins to predict their interactions and associations. The results of the present study serve as a basis for future functional studies on the Populus CAMTA family.
Project description:Draft genome sequences for four Actinobacteria from the genus Streptomyces are presented. Streptomyces is a metabolically diverse genus that is abundant in soils and has been reported in association with plants. The strains described in this study were isolated from the Populus trichocarpa endosphere and rhizosphere.