Project description:Alu elements are primate-specific retroposons that mobilize using the enzymatic machinery of L1 s. The recently completed baboon genome project found that the mobilization rate of Alu elements is higher than in the genome of any other primate studied thus far. However, the Alu subfamily structure present in and specific to baboons had not been examined yet.Here we report 129 Alu subfamilies that are propagating in the genome of the olive baboon, with 127 of these subfamilies being new and specific to the baboon lineage. We analyzed 233 Alu insertions in the genome of the olive baboon using locus specific polymerase chain reaction assays, covering 113 of the 129 subfamilies. The allele frequency data from these insertions show that none of the nine groups of subfamilies are nearing fixation in the lineage.Many subfamilies of Alu elements are actively mobilizing throughout the baboon lineage, with most being specific to the baboon lineage.
Project description:The baboon is an invaluable model for the study of human health and disease, including many complex diseases of the kidney. Although scientists have made great progress in developing this animal as a model for numerous areas of biomedical research, genomic resources for the baboon, such as a quality annotated genome, are still lacking. To this end, we characterized the baboon kidney transcriptome using high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify genes, gene variants, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion-deletion polymorphisms (InDels), cellular functions, and key pathways in the baboon kidney to provide a genomic resource for the baboon. Analysis of our sequencing data revealed 45,499 high-confidence SNPs and 29,813 InDels comparing baboon cDNA sequences with the human hg18 reference assembly and identified 35,900 cDNAs in the baboon kidney, including 35,150 transcripts representing 15,369 genic genes that are novel for the baboon. Gene ontology analysis of our sequencing dataset also identified numerous biological functions and canonical pathways that were significant in the baboon kidney, including a large number of metabolic pathways that support known functions of the kidney. The results presented in this study catalogues the transcribed mRNAs, noncoding RNAs, and hypothetical proteins in the baboon kidney and establishes a genomic resource for scientists using the baboon as an experimental model.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Baboons are a widely used nonhuman primate model for biomedical, evolutionary, and basic genetics research. Despite this importance, the genomic resources for baboons are limited. In particular, the current baboon reference genome Panu_3.0 is a highly fragmented, reference-guided (i.e., not fully de novo) assembly, and its poor quality inhibits our ability to conduct downstream genomic analyses.<br><br><b>Findings: </b>Here we present a de novo genome assembly of the olive baboon (Papio anubis) that uses data from several recently developed single-molecule technologies. Our assembly, Panubis1.0, has an N50 contig size of ?1.46 Mb (as opposed to 139 kb for Panu_3.0) and has single scaffolds that span each of the 20 autosomes and the X chromosome.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>We highlight multiple lines of evidence (including Bionano Genomics data, pedigree linkage information, and linkage disequilibrium data) suggesting that there are several large assembly errors in Panu_3.0, which have been corrected in Panubis1.0.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that closely related species can accumulate substantial genetic and phenotypic differences despite ongoing gene flow, thus challenging traditional ideas regarding the genetics of speciation. Baboons (genus Papio) are Old World monkeys consisting of six readily distinguishable species. Baboon species hybridize in the wild, and prior data imply a complex history of differentiation and introgression. We produced a reference genome assembly for the olive baboon (Papio anubis) and whole-genome sequence data for all six extant species. We document multiple episodes of admixture and introgression during the radiation of Papio baboons, thus demonstrating their value as a model of complex evolutionary divergence, hybridization, and reticulation. These results help inform our understanding of similar cases, including modern humans, Neanderthals, Denisovans, and other ancient hominins.
Project description:Baboons naturally infected with simian T lymphotropic virus (STLV) are a potentially useful model system for the study of vaccination against human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV). Here we expanded the number of available full-length baboon STLV-1 sequences from one to three and related the T cell responses that recognize the immunodominant Tax protein to the tax sequences present in two individual baboons. Continuously growing T cell lines were established from two baboons, animals 12141 and 12752. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of complete STLV genome sequences from these T cell lines revealed them to be closely related but distinct from each other and from the baboon STLV-1 sequence in the NCBI sequence database. Overlapping peptides corresponding to each unique Tax sequence and to the reference baboon Tax sequence were used to analyze recognition by T cells from each baboon using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). Individual baboons expressed more gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha in response to Tax peptides corresponding to their own STLV-1 sequence than in response to Tax peptides corresponding to the reference baboon STLV-1 sequence. Thus, our analyses revealed distinct but closely related STLV-1 genome sequences in two baboons, extremely low heterogeneity of STLV sequences within each baboon, no evidence for superinfection within each baboon, and a ready ability of T cells in each baboon to recognize circulating Tax sequences. While amino acid substitutions that result in escape from CD8+ T cell recognition were not observed, premature stop codons were observed in 7% and 56% of tax sequences from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from animals 12141 and 12752, respectively.IMPORTANCE It has been estimated that approximately 100,000 people suffer serious morbidity and 10,000 people die each year from the consequences associated with human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection. There are no antiviral drugs and no preventive vaccine. A preventive vaccine would significantly impact the global burden associated with HTLV infections. Here we provide fundamental information on the simian T lymphotropic virus (STLV) naturally transmitted in a colony of captive baboons. The limited viral sequence heterogeneity in individual baboons, the identity of the viral gene product that is the major target of cellular immune responses, the persistence of viral amino acid sequences that are the major targets of cellular immune responses, and the emergence in vivo of truncated variants in the major target of cellular immune responses all parallel what are seen with HTLV infection of humans. These results justify the use of STLV-infected baboons as a model system for vaccine development efforts.
Project description:This data set consists of tissue-specific RNA-seq reads from 14 different tissues from a single female adult olive baboon (Papio anubis): bone marrow, brain cerebellum, brain frontal cortex, brain pituitary, brain temporal lobe, colon, heart, kidney, liver, lymph node, spleen, lung, skeletal muscle and thymus. The data set was generated by the non-human primate reference transcriptome resource (NHPRTR) project (http://nhprtr.org/), and was first made public on 14 Jan 2014.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs (~22 nucleotides) that regulate gene expression by cleaving mRNAs or inhibiting translation. The baboon is a well-characterized cardiovascular disease model; however, no baboon miRNAs have been identified. Evidence indicates that the baboon and human genomes are highly conserved; based on this conservation, we hypothesized that comparative genomic methods could be used to identify baboon miRNAs.We employed an in silico comparative genomics approach and human miRNA arrays to identify baboon expressed miRNAs in liver (n = 6) and lymphocytes (n = 6). Expression profiles for selected miRNAs in multiple tissues were validated by RT-PCR.We identified in silico 555 putative baboon pre-miRNAs, of which 41% exhibited 100% identity and an additional 58% shared more than 90% sequence identity with human pre-miRNAs. Some of these miRNAs are primate-specific and are clustered in the baboon genome like human miRNA clusters. We detected expression of 494 miRNAs on the microarray and validated expression of selected miRNAs in baboon liver and lymphocytes by RT-PCR. We also observed miRNA expression in additional tissues relevant to dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Approximately half of the miRNAs expressed on the array were not predicted in silico suggesting that we have identified novel baboon miRNAs, which could not be predicted using the current draft of the baboon genome.We identified a subset of baboon miRNAs using a comparative genomic approach, identified additional baboon miRNAs using a human array and showed tissue-specific expression of baboon miRNAs. Our discovery of baboon miRNAs in liver and lymphocytes will provide resources for studies on the roles of miRNAs in dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis, and for translational studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genotype imputation from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data using a haplotype reference panel consisting of thousands of unrelated individuals from populations of interest can help to identify strongly associated variants in genome-wide association studies. The Tohoku Medical Megabank (TMM) project was established to support the development of precision medicine, together with the whole-genome sequencing of 1070 human genomes from individuals in the Miyagi region (Northeast Japan) and the construction of the 1070 Japanese genome reference panel (1KJPN). Here, we investigated the performance of 1KJPN for genotype imputation of Japanese samples not included in the TMM project and compared it with other population reference panels. RESULTS:We found that the 1KJPN population was more similar to other Japanese populations, Nagahama (south-central Japan) and Aki (Shikoku Island), than to East Asian populations in the 1000 Genomes Project other than JPT, suggesting that the large-scale collection (more than 1000) of Japanese genomes from the Miyagi region covered many of the genetic variations of Japanese in mainland Japan. Moreover, 1KJPN outperformed the phase 3 reference panel of the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGPp3) for Japanese samples, and IKJPN showed similar imputation rates for the TMM and other Japanese samples for SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) higher than 1%. CONCLUSIONS:1KJPN covered most of the variants found in the samples from areas of the Japanese mainland outside the Miyagi region, implying 1KJPN is representative of the Japanese population's genomes. 1KJPN and successive reference panels are useful genome reference panels for the mainland Japanese population. Importantly, the addition of whole genome sequences not included in the 1KJPN panel improved imputation efficiencies for SNPs with MAFs under 1% for samples from most regions of the Japanese archipelago.
Project description:Completion of tomato genome sequencing project has broad impacts on genetic and genomic studies of tomato and Solanaceae plants. The reference genome sequence derived from Solanum lycopersicum cv 'Heinz 1706' serves as the firm basis for sequencing-based approaches to tomato genomics. In this article, we first present a brief summary of the genome sequencing project and a summary of the reference genome sequence. We then focus on recent progress in transcriptome sequencing and small RNA sequencing and show how the reference genome sequence makes these analyses more comprehensive than before. We discuss the potential of in-depth analysis that is based on DNA methylome sequencing and transcription start-site detection. Finally, we describe the current status of efforts to resequence S. lycopersicum cultivars to demonstrate how resequencing can allow the use of intraspecific genomic diversity for detailed phenotyping and breeding.
Project description:Male dispersal from the natal group at or near maturity is a feature of most baboon (Papio) species. It potentially has profound effects upon population structure and evolutionary processes, but dispersal, especially for unusually long distances, is not readily documented by direct field observation. In this pilot study, we investigate the possibility of retrieving baboon population structure in yellow (Papio cynocephalus) and kinda (Papio kindae) baboons from the distribution of variation in a genome-wide set of 494 Alu insertion polymorphisms, made available via the recently completed Baboon Genome Analysis Consortium. Alu insertion variation in a mixed population derived from yellow and olive (Papio anubis) baboons identified each individual's proportion of heritage from either parental species. In an unmixed yellow baboon population, our analysis showed greater similarity between neighboring than between more distantly situated groups, suggesting structuring of the population by male dispersal distance. Finally (and very provisionally), an unexpectedly sharp difference in Alu insertion frequencies between members of neighboring social groups of kinda baboons suggests that intergroup migration may be more rare than predicted in this little known species.