Project description:Oenococcus oeni UNQOe19 is a native strain isolated from a Patagonian pinot noir wine undergoing spontaneous malolactic fermentation. Here, we present the 1.83-Mb genome sequence of O. oeni UNQOe19, the first fully assembled genome sequence of a psychrotrophic strain from an Argentinean wine.
Project description:Oenococcus oeni OE37 is an autochthonous strain that was isolated from a Chardonnay wine from Piedmont (Italy) during spontaneous malolactic fermentation. Here, the OE37 genome sequence is presented, and a brief description of the main genes is reported.
Project description:Oenococcus oeni is a lactic acid bacteria species encountered particularly in wine, where it achieves the malolactic fermentation. Molecular typing methods have previously revealed that the species is made of several genetic groups of strains, some being specific to certain types of wines, ciders or regions. Here, we describe 36 recently released O. oeni genomes and the phylogenomic analysis of these 36 plus 14 previously reported genomes. We also report three genome sequences of the sister species Oenococcus kitaharae that were used for phylogenomic reconstructions. Phylogenomic and population structure analyses performed revealed that the 50 O. oeni genomes delineate two major groups of 12 and 37 strains, respectively, named A and B, plus a putative group C, consisting of a single strain. A study on the orthologs and single nucleotide polymorphism contents of the genetic groups revealed that the domestication of some strains to products such as cider, wine, or champagne, is reflected at the genetic level. While group A strains proved to be predominant in wine and to form subgroups adapted to specific types of wine such as champagne, group B strains were found in wine and cider. The strain from putative group C was isolated from cider and genetically closer to group B strains. The results suggest that ancestral O. oeni strains were adapted to low-ethanol containing environments such as overripe fruits, and that they were domesticated to cider and wine, with group A strains being naturally selected in a process of further domestication to specific wines such as champagne.
Project description:Oenococcus oeni is the most common species of lactic acid bacteria associated with malolactic fermentation in wine. Here, we report the genome sequence of the lytic phage OE33PA (vB_OeS_OE33PA). It has a morphotype similar to that of members of the Siphoviridae family, a linear 39,866-bp double-stranded genome with cohesive ends, and 57 predicted open reading frames.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Oenococcus oeni, a member of the lactic acid bacteria, is one of a limited number of microorganisms that not only survive, but actively proliferate in wine. It is also unusual as, unlike the majority of bacteria present in wine, it is beneficial to wine quality rather than causing spoilage. These benefits are realised primarily through catalysing malolactic fermentation, but also through imparting other positive sensory properties. However, many of these industrially-important secondary attributes have been shown to be strain-dependent and their genetic basis it yet to be determined. RESULTS: In order to investigate the scale and scope of genetic variation in O. oeni, we have performed whole-genome sequencing on eleven strains of this bacterium, bringing the total number of strains for which genome sequences are available to fourteen. While any single strain of O. oeni was shown to contain around 1800 protein-coding genes, in-depth comparative annotation based on genomic synteny and protein orthology identified over 2800 orthologous open reading frames that comprise the pan genome of this species, and less than 1200 genes that make up the conserved genomic core present in all of the strains. The expansion of the pan genome relative to the coding potential of individual strains was shown to be due to the varied presence and location of multiple distinct bacteriophage sequences and also in various metabolic functions with potential impacts on the industrial performance of this species, including cell wall exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, sugar transport and utilisation and amino acid biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS: By providing a large cohort of sequenced strains, this study provides a broad insight into the genetic variation present within O. oeni. This data is vital to understanding and harnessing the phenotypic variation present in this economically-important species.
Project description:Oenococcus oeni is the main responsible agent for malolactic fermentation in wine, an unpredictable and erratic process in winemaking. To address this, we have constructed and exhaustively curated the first genome-scale metabolic model of Oenococcus oeni, comprising 660 reactions, 536 metabolites and 454 genes. In silico experiments revealed that nutritional requirements are predicted with an accuracy of 93%, while 14 amino acids were found to be essential for the growth of this bacterial species. When the model was applied to determine the non-growth associated maintenance, results showed that O. oeni grown at 12% ethanol concentration spent 30 times more ATP to stay alive than in the absence of ethanol. Most of this ATP is employed for extruding protons outside of the cell. A positive relationship was also found between specific consumption rates of fructose, amino acids, oxygen, and malic acid and the specific production rates of erythritol, lactate, and acetate, according to the ethanol content of the medium. The metabolic model reconstructed here represents a unique tool to predict the successful completion of wine malolactic fermentation carried out either by different strains of Oenococcus oeni, as well as at any particular physico-chemical composition of wine. It will also allow the development of consortium metabolic models that could be applied to winemaking to simulate and understand the interactions between O. oeni and other microorganisms that share this ecological niche.
Project description:The intraspecific genetic diversity of Oenococcus oeni, the key organism in the malolactic fermentation of wine, has been evaluated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), ribotyping, small-plasmid content, and sequencing of RAPD markers with widespread distribution among the strains. Collection strains representing the diversity of this species have been studied together with some new isolates, many of which were obtained from wines produced by spontaneous malolactic fermentation. The RAPD profiles were strain specific and discerned two main groups of strains coincident with clusters obtained by macrorestriction typing in a previous work. Ribotyping and the conservation of RAPD markers indicates that O. oeni is a relatively homogeneous species. Furthermore, identical DNA sequences of some RAPD markers among strains representative of the most divergent RAPD clusters indicates that O. oeni is indeed a phylogenetically tight group, probably corresponding to a single clone, or clonal line of descent, specialized to grow in the wine environment and universally spread.
Project description:The presence and load of species of LAB at the end of the malolactic fermentation (MLF) were investigated in 16 wineries from the different Chilean valleys (Limarí, Casablanca, Maipo, Rapel, and Maule Valleys) during 2012 and 2013, using PCR-RFLP and qPCR. Oenococcus oeni was observed in 80% of the samples collected. Dominance of O. oeni was reflected in the bacterial load (O. oeni/total bacteria) measured by qPCR, corresponding to >85% in most of the samples. A total of 178 LAB isolates were identified after sequencing molecular markers, 95 of them corresponded to O. oeni. Further genetic analyses were performed using MLST (7 genes) including 10 commercial strains; the results indicated that commercial strains were grouped together, while autochthonous strains distributed among different genetic clusters. To pre-select some autochthonous O. oeni, these isolates were also characterized based on technological tests such as ethanol tolerance (12 and 15%), SO2 resistance (0 and 80 mg l-1), and pH (3.1 and 3.6) and malic acid transformation (1.5 and 4 g l-1). For comparison purposes, commercial strain VP41 was also tested. Based on their technological performance, only 3 isolates were selected for further examination (genome analysis) and they were able to reduce malic acid concentration, to grow at low pH 3.1, 15% ethanol and 80 mg l-1 SO2. The genome analyses of three selected isolates were examined and compared to PSU-1 and VP41 strains to study their potential contribution to the organoleptic properties of the final product. The presence and homology of genes potentially related to aromatic profile were compared among those strains. The results indicated high conservation of malolactic enzyme (>99%) and the absence of some genes related to odor such as phenolic acid decarboxylase, in autochthonous strains. Genomic analysis also revealed that these strains shared 470 genes with VP41 and PSU-1 and that autochthonous strains harbor an interesting number of unique genes (>21). Altogether these results reveal the presence of local strains distinguishable from commercial strains at the genetic/genomic level and also having genomic traits that enforce their potential use as starter cultures.
Project description:Oenococcus oeni is a lactic acid bacterium that is specialised for growth in the ecological niche of wine, where it is noted for its ability to perform the secondary, malolactic fermentation that is often required for many types of wine. Expanding the understanding of strain-dependent genetic variations in its small and streamlined genome is important for realising its full potential in industrial fermentation processes.Whole genome comparison was performed on 191 strains of O. oeni; from this rich source of genomic information consensus pan-genome assemblies of the invariant (core) and variable (flexible) regions of this organism were established. Genetic variation in amino acid biosynthesis and sugar transport and utilisation was found to be common between strains. Furthermore, we characterised previously-unreported intra-specific genetic variations in the natural competence of this microbe.By assembling a consensus pan-genome from a large number of strains, this study provides a tool for researchers to readily compare protein-coding genes across strains and infer functional relationships between genes in conserved syntenic regions. This establishes a foundation for further genetic, and thus phenotypic, research of this industrially-important species.