Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related death among men, largely due to incurable distant metastases. Metformin, the most common used anti-type-2 diabetes medicine, has been linked to reduced cancer risk and better diagnosis. We found that metformin was able to inhibit PCa cell migration, which correlates with tumor metastatic capability. The pathogenesis and progression of tumors are closely related to dysregulated gene expression in tumor cells through epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. We found that the level of SUV39H1, a histone methyltransferase of H3 Lys9, was reduced in metformin-treated PCa cells in a time-dependent manner. SUV39H1 overexpression increased PCa migration, whereas SUV39H1 depletion suppressed PCa cell migration. There is a positive correlation between SUV39H1 expression and PCa pathological stages. We further showed that both metformin treatment and SUV39H1 knockout in PCa cells can reduce integrin ?V and ?1 proteins, as well as their downstream phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) levels, which is essential for functional adhesion signaling and tumor cell migration. Taken together, metformin reduced SUV39H1 to inhibit migration of PCa cells via disturbing the integrin-FAK signaling. Our study suggests SUV39H1 as a novel target to inhibit PCa cell migration.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of human mesenchymal stem cells comparing normoxic MSCs cells with hypoxic MSCs cells. Hypoxia may inhibit senescence of MSCs during expansion. Goal was to determine the effects of hypoxia on global MSCs gene expression. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, Normoxic MSCs vs. Hypoxic MSCs.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of human mesenchymal stem cells comparing normoxic MSCs cells with hypoxic MSCs cells. Hypoxia may inhibit senescence of MSCs during expansion. Goal was to determine the effects of hypoxia on global MSCs gene expression. Two-condition experiment, Normoxic MSCs vs. Hypoxic MSCs.
Project description:Gene expression profiles for ~20,000 genes using Illumina Homo sapiensRef-8 v2 Overall design: Cell lines were picked to match cell lines that were assayed in a complimentary set of transient transfection promoter activity assays. Gene identifiers on the BeadArrays were matched to promoter predictions from SwitchGear Genomics (www.switchdb.com; score>20) for transcripts that were not associated with alternative promoters. The eight cell lines are: Ags, HeLa, HepG2, HT1080, HCT116, T98G, U87MG, and G402.
Project description:We have sequenced miRNA libraries from human embryonic, neural and foetal mesenchymal stem cells. We report that the majority of miRNA genes encode mature isomers that vary in size by one or more bases at the 3’ and/or 5’ end of the miRNA. Northern blotting for individual miRNAs showed that the proportions of isomiRs expressed by a single miRNA gene often differ between cell and tissue types. IsomiRs were readily co-immunoprecipitated with Argonaute proteins in vivo and were active in luciferase assays, indicating that they are functional. Bioinformatics analysis predicts substantial differences in targeting between miRNAs with minor 5’ differences and in support of this we report that a 5’ isomiR-9-1 gained the ability to inhibit the expression of DNMT3B and NCAM2 but lost the ability to inhibit CDH1 in vitro. This result was confirmed by the use of isomiR-specific sponges. Our analysis of the miRGator database indicates that a small percentage of human miRNA genes express isomiRs as the dominant transcript in certain cell types and analysis of miRBase shows that 5’ isomiRs have replaced canonical miRNAs many times during evolution. This strongly indicates that isomiRs are of functional importance and have contributed to the evolution of miRNA genes Sequence library of miRNAs from a single sample of human foetal mesenchymal stem cells. Results tested and confirmed by northern blotting. Please note that only raw data files are available for the embryonic and neual samples and thus, directly submitted to SRA (SRX547311, SRX548700, respectively under SRP042115/PRJNA247767)
Project description:Gene methylation profiling of immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells comparing HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs cells with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)- and HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs. hTERT may increase gene methylation in MSCs. Goal was to determine the effects of different transfected genes on global gene methylation in MSCs. Two-condition experiment, KP MSCs vs. 3A6 MSCs.
Project description:Histone methylation performs multiple functions such as DNA replication, transcription regulation, heterochromatin formation, and chromatin condensation. How this methylation gradient is orchestrated in the centromere during chromosome segregation is not known. Here we examine the temporal dynamics of protein methylation in the centromere by SUV39H1 methyltransferase, a key mitotic regulator, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based sensors in living HeLa cells and immunofluorescence of native SUV39H1 substrates. A quantitative analysis of methylation dynamics, using centromere-targeted sensors, reveals a temporal change during chromosome segregation. These dynamics result in an accurate chromosome congression to and alignment at the equator as an inhibition of methylation dynamics using SUV39H1 inhibitor perturbs chromosome congression in living HeLa cells. Surprisingly, this inhibition of methylation results in a brief increase in Aurora B kinase activity and an enrichment of microtubule depolymerase MCAK in the centromere with a concomitant kinetochore-microtubule destabilization and a reduced tension across the sister kinetochores with ultimate chromosome misalignments. We reason that SUV39H1 generates a gradient of methylation marks at the kinetochore that provides spatiotemporal information essential for accurate chromosome segregation in mitosis.
Project description:Gene methylation profiling of immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells comparing HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs cells with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)- and HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs. hTERT may increase gene methylation in MSCs. Goal was to determine the effects of different transfected genes on global gene methylation in MSCs. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, KP MSCs vs. 3A6 MSCs.
Project description:Diabetes remains a major risk factor for vascular complications that seem to persist even after achieving glycemic control, possibly due to "metabolic memory." Using cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (MVSMC) from type 2 diabetic db/db mice, we recently showed that decreased promoter occupancy of the chromatin histone H3 lysine-9 methyltransferase Suv39h1 and the associated repressive epigenetic mark histone H3 lysine-9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) play key roles in sustained inflammatory gene expression. Here we examined the role of microRNAs (miRs) in Suv39h1 regulation and function in MVSMC from diabetic mice.We used luciferase assays with Suv39h1 3'untranslated region (UTR) reporter constructs and Western blotting of endogenous protein to verify that miR-125b targets Suv39h1. We examined the effects of Suv39h1 targeting on inflammatory gene expression by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and H3K9me3 levels at their promoters by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays.We observed significant upregulation of miR-125b with parallel downregulation of Suv39h1 protein (predicted miR-125b target) in MVSMC cultured from diabetic db/db mice relative to control db/+. miR-125b mimics inhibited both Suv39h1 3'UTR luciferase reporter activity and endogenous Suv39h1 protein levels. Conversely, miR-125b inhibitors showed opposite effects. Furthermore, miR-125b mimics increased expression of inflammatory genes, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and interleukin-6, and reduced H3K9me3 at their promoters in nondiabetic cells. Interestingly, miR-125b mimics increased monocyte binding to db/+ MVSMC toward that in db/db MVSMC, further imitating the proinflammatory diabetic phenotype. In addition, we found that the increase in miR-125b in db/db VSMC is caused by increased transcription of miR-125b-2.These results demonstrate a novel upstream role for miR-125b in the epigenetic regulation of inflammatory genes in MVSMC of db/db mice through downregulation of Suv39h1.
Project description:Centromere chromatin containing histone H3 variant CENP-A is required for accurate chromosome segregation as a foundation for kinetochore assembly. Human centromere chromatin assembles on a part of the long ?-satellite (alphoid) DNA array, where it is flanked by pericentric heterochromatin. Heterochromatin spreads into adjacent chromatin and represses gene expression, and it can antagonize centromere function or CENP-A assembly. Here, we demonstrate an interaction between CENP-A assembly factor M18BP1 and acetyltransferase KAT7/HBO1/MYST2. Knocking out KAT7 in HeLa cells reduced centromeric CENP-A assembly. Mitotic chromosome misalignment and micronuclei formation increased in the knockout cells and were enhanced when the histone H3-K9 trimethylase Suv39h1 was overproduced. Tethering KAT7 to an ectopic alphoid DNA integration site removed heterochromatic H3K9me3 modification and was sufficient to stimulate new CENP-A or histone H3.3 assembly. Thus, KAT7-containing acetyltransferases associating with the Mis18 complex provides competence for histone turnover/exchange activity on alphoid DNA and prevents Suv39h1-mediated heterochromatin invasion into centromeres.