Project description:In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide and a blight on global aquaculture. This organism requires a horizontally acquired type III secretion system (T3SS2) to infect the small intestine, but knowledge of additional factors that underlie V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity is limited. We used transposon-insertion sequencing to screen for genes that contribute to viability of V. parahaemolyticus in vitro and in the mammalian intestine. Our analysis enumerated and controlled for the host infection bottleneck, enabling robust assessment of genetic contributions to in vivo fitness. We identified genes that contribute to V. parahaemolyticus colonization of the intestine independent of known virulence mechanisms in addition to uncharacterized components of T3SS2. Our study revealed that toxR, an ancestral locus in Vibrio species, is required for V. parahaemolyticus fitness in vivo and for induction of T3SS2 gene expression. The regulatory mechanism by which V. parahaemolyticus ToxR activates expression of T3SS2 resembles Vibrio cholerae ToxR regulation of distinct virulence elements acquired via lateral gene transfer. Thus, disparate horizontally acquired virulence systems have been placed under the control of this ancestral transcription factor across independently evolved human pathogens.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus is recognized as one of the main causes of human gastroenteritis associated with seafood. We have fully sequenced the genome of a newly isolated phage, vB_VpaS_MAR10, which lysed 61.9% of the V. parahaemolyticus strains tested. Phage MAR10 is a temperate siphovirus, and its genome consists of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a size of 78,751 bp, a G+C content of 49.70%, and 104 open reading frames. Bioinformatic analysis shows that phage MAR10 is closely related to Vibrio phage SSP002.
Project description:The number of inflammatory gastroenteritis outbreaks due to the food-borne pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus is rising sharply worldwide and in the United States in particular. Here we report the complete, annotated genome sequence of the prepandemic V. parahaemolyticus strain BB22OP and make some initial comparisons to the complete genome sequence for pandemic strain RIMD2210633.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Prior to 1995, numerous V. parahaemolyticus serogroups were associated with disease, however, in that year an O3:K6 serogroup emerged in Southeast Asia causing large outbreaks and rapid hospitalizations. This new highly virulent strain is now globally disseminated. RESULTS: We performed a four-way BLAST analysis on the genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633, an O3:K6 isolate from Japan recovered in 1996, versus the genomes of four published Vibrio species and constructed genome BLAST atlases. We identified 24 regions, gaps in the genome atlas, of greater than 10 kb that were unique to RIMD2210633. These 24 regions included an integron, f237 phage, 2 type III secretion systems (T3SS), a type VI secretion system (T6SS) and 7 Vibrio parahaemolyticus genomic islands (VPaI-1 to VPaI-7). Comparative genomic analysis of our fifth genome, V. parahaemolyticus AQ3810, an O3:K6 isolate recovered in 1983, identified four regions unique to each V. parahaemolyticus strain. Interestingly, AQ3810 did not encode 8 of the 24 regions unique to RMID, including a T6SS, which suggests an additional virulence mechanism in RIMD2210633. The distribution of only the VPaI regions was highly variable among a collection of 42 isolates and phylogenetic analysis of these isolates show that these regions are confined to a pathogenic clade. CONCLUSION: Our data show that there is considerable genomic flux in this species and that the new highly virulent clone arose from an O3:K6 isolate that acquired at least seven novel regions, which included both a T3SS and a T6SS.
Project description:The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an opportunistic human pathogen and the leading cause of seafood-borne acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, this bacterium was implicated as the etiologic agent of a severe shrimp disease with consequent devastating outcomes to shrimp farming. In both cases, acquisition of genetic material via horizontal transfer provided V. parahaemolyticus with new virulence tools to cause disease. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus pathogenesis often requires manipulating its genome. Classically, genetic deletions in V. parahaemolyticus are performed using a laborious, lengthy, multistep process. Here, we describe a fast and efficient method to edit this bacterium's genome based on V. parahaemolyticus natural competence. Although this method is similar to one previously described, V. parahaemolyticus requires counterselection for curing of acquired plasmids due to its recalcitrant nature of retaining extrachromosomal DNA. We believe this approach will be of use to the Vibrio community.IMPORTANCE Spreading of vibrios throughout the world correlates with increased global temperatures. As they spread, they find new niches in which to survive, proliferate, and invade. Therefore, genetic manipulation of vibrios is of the utmost importance for studying these species. Here, we have delineated and validated a rapid method to create genetic deletions in Vibrio parahaemolyticus This study provides insightful methodology for studies with other Vibrio species.
Project description:A multi-resistant strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from a tropical estuary in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Genome sequencing was conducted to establish the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in this organism. The genetic content of this strain revealed it to be a non-virulent lineage that nevertheless possesses several antibiotic resistance determinants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean worldwide. However, production of this prawn is facing a serious threat from Vibriosis disease caused by Vibrio species such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Unfortunately, the mechanisms involved in the immune response of this species to bacterial infection are not fully understood. We therefore used a high-throughput deep sequencing technology to investigate the transcriptome and comparative expression profiles of the hepatopancreas from this freshwater prawn infected with V. parahaemolyticus to gain an increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the species' immune response to this pathogenic bacteria. RESULT:A total of 59,122,940 raw reads were obtained from the control group, and 58,385,094 reads from the Vibrio-infected group. Via de novo assembly by Trinity assembler, 59,050 control unigenes and 73,946 Vibrio-infected group unigenes were obtained. By clustering unigenes from both libraries, a total of 64,411 standard unigenes were produced. The standard unigenes were annotated against the NCBI non-redundant, Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of Proteins (COG) databases, with 19,799 (30.73%), 16,832 (26.13%), 14,706 (22.83%) and 7,856 (12.19%) hits respectively, giving a final total of 22,455 significant hits (34.86% of all unigenes). A Gene Ontology (GO) analysis search using the Blast2GO program resulted in 6,007 unigenes (9.32%) being categorized into 55 functional groups. A differential gene expression analysis produced a total of 14,569 unigenes aberrantly expressed, with 11,446 unigenes significantly up-regulated and 3,103 unigenes significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune genes fall under various processes of the animal immune system. CONCLUSION:This study provided an insight into the antibacterial mechanism in M. rosenbergii and the role of differentially expressed immune genes in response to V. parahaemolyticus infection. Furthermore, this study has generated an abundant list of transcript from M.rosenbergii which will provide a fundamental basis for future genomics research in this field.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major pathogen that is mainly associated with seafood and is a global food safety issue. Our objective was to isolate and completely sequence a specific phage against this bacterium. Phage vB_VpaM_MAR is able to lyse 76% of the V. parahaemolyticus strains tested. MAR belongs to the Myoviridae family and has a genome comprised of double-stranded DNA with a size of 41,351 bp, a G+C content of 51.3%, and 62 open reading frames (ORFs). Bioinformatic analysis showed that phage MAR is closely related to Vibrio phages VHML, VP58.5, and VP882 and Halomonas aquamarina phage ?HAP-1.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an aquatic halophilic bacterium that occupies estuarine and coastal marine environments, and is a leading cause of seafood-borne food poisoning cases. To investigate the environmental reservoir and potential gene flow that occurs among V. parahaemolyticus isolates, the virulence-associated gene content and genome diversity of a collection of 133 V. parahaemolyticus isolates were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, demonstrated that there is genetic similarity among V. parahaemolyticus clinical and environmental isolates. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis of six representative V. parahaemolyticus isolates was used to identify genes that are unique to the clinical and environmental isolates examined. Comparative genomics demonstrated an O3:K6 environmental isolate, AF91, which was cultured from sediment collected in Florida in 2006, has significant genomic similarity to the post-1995 O3:K6 isolates. However, AF91 lacks the majority of the virulence-associated genes and genomic islands associated with these highly virulent post-1995 O3:K6 genomes. These findings demonstrate that although they do not contain most of the known virulence-associated regions, some V. parahaemolyticus environmental isolates exhibit significant genetic similarity to clinical isolates. This highlights the dynamic nature of the V. parahaemolyticus genome allowing them to transition between aquatic and host-pathogen states.