Project description:Studies have emphasized the importance of disease-associated microorganisms in perturbed communities, however, the protective roles of commensals are largely under recognized and poorly understood. Using acne as a model disease, we investigated the determinants of the overall virulence property of the skin microbiota when disease- and health-associated organisms coexist in the community. By ultra-deep metagenomic shotgun sequencing, we revealed higher relative abundances of propionibacteria and Propionibacterium acnes phage in healthy skin. In acne patients, the microbiome composition at the species level and at P. acnes strain level was more diverse than in healthy individuals, with enriched virulence-associated factors and reduced abundance of metabolic synthesis genes. Based on the abundance profiles of the metagenomic elements, we constructed a quantitative prediction model, which classified the clinical states of the host skin with high accuracy in... (for more see dbGaP study page.)
Project description:Recent studies suggest that genetic and environmental factors do not account for all the schizophrenia risk and epigenetics also plays a role in disease susceptibility. DNA methylation is a heritable epigenetic modification that can regulate gene expression. Genome-Wide DNA methylation analysis was performed on post-mortem human brain tissue from 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 unaffected controls. DNA methylation was assessed at over 485 000 CpG sites using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 Bead Chip. After adjusting for age and post-mortem interval (PMI), 4 641 probes corresponding to 2 929 unique genes were found to be differentially methylated. Of those genes, 1 291 were located in a CpG island and 817 were in a promoter region. These include NOS1, AKT1, DTNBP1, DNMT1, PPP3CC and SOX10 which have previously been associated with schizophrenia. More than 100 of these genes overlap with a previous DNA methylation study of peripheral blood from schizophrenia patients in which 27 000 CpG sites were analysed. Unsupervised clustering analysis of the top 3 000 most variable probes revealed two distinct groups with significantly more people with schizophrenia in cluster one compared to controls (p = 1.74x10-4). The first cluster was composed of 88% of patients with schizophrenia and only 12% controls while the second cluster was composed of 27% of patients with schizophrenia and 73% controls. These results strongly suggest that differential DNA methylation is important in schizophrenia etiology and add support for the use of DNA methylation profiles as a future prognostic indicator of schizophrenia Genome-Wide DNA methylation analysis was performed on post-mortem human brain tissue from 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 unaffected controls. DNA methylation was assessed at over 485 000 CpG sites using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 Bead Chip.
Project description:Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disease with complex etiology, affecting approximately one percent of the general population. Most genetic studies so far focused on disease association with common genetic variation such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, but recently it has become apparent that large-scale genomic copy number variants (CNVs) are involved in disease development as well. To assess the role of rare CNVs in schizophrenia, we screened 54 patients with deficit schizophrenia using Affymetrix’ GeneChip 250K SNP arrays. Keywords: genomic hybridisation We hybridized genomic DNA of 54 patients with deficit schizophrenia to Affymetrix' GeneChip 250K SNP (Nsp) arrays, and identified genome-wide CNV using the Copy Number Analyzer for Affymetrix GeneChip (CNAG v2.0) software, which uses a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) algorithm to calculate copy numbers.
Project description:Analysis of cortical samples corresponding to the crus I/VIIa area of the cerebellum from schizophrenia patients. A study indicates that targets of the RNA-binding ELAV-like protein HuD are overexpressed in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia.
Project description:DNA methylation (DNAm) is important in brain development, and potentially in schizophrenia. We characterized DNAm in prefrontal cortex from 335 non-psychiatric controls across the lifespan and 191 patients with schizophrenia, and identified widespread changes in the transition from prenatal to postnatal life. These DNAm changes manifest in the transcriptome, correlate strongly with a shifting cellular landscape, and overlap regions of genetic risk for schizophrenia. A quarter of published GWAS-suggestive loci (4,208/15,930, p<10-20) manifest as significant methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs), including 59.6% of GWAS-positive schizophrenia loci. We identified 2,104 CpGs that differ between schizophrenia patients and controls, enriched for genes related to development and neurodifferentiation. The schizophrenia-associated CpGs strongly correlate with changes related to the prenatal-postnatal transition and show slight enrichment for GWAS risk loci, while not corresponding to CpGs differentiating adolescence from later adult life. These data implicate an epigenetic component to the developmental origins of this disorder. Overall design: DNA methylation data from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from 335 controls and 191 patients with schizophrenia. Some samples were run multiple times. The `BrNum` column delineates individual subjects and the `bestQC` column below indicates which samples to use to result in one array per subject.