Project description:This is the first report of the genome sequence of Trichosporon asahii environmental strain CBS 8904, which was isolated from maize cobs. Comparison of the genome sequence with that of clinical strain CBS 2479 revealed that they have >99% chromosomal and mitochondrial sequence identity, yet CBS 8904 has 368 specific genes. Analysis of clusters of orthologous groups predicted that 3,307 genes belong to 23 functional categories and 703 genes were predicted to have a general function.
Project description:A type strain of Lactarius deliciosus was obtained from the CBS-KNAW culture collection. The mycelium was cultured using potato dextrose agar, and the extracted genomic DNA was subjected to PacBio genome sequencing. Upon assembly and annotation, the genome size was estimated to be 54 Mbp, with 12,753 genes.
Project description:Saccharomyces pastorianus lager brewing yeasts are domesticated hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cold-tolerant Saccharomyces eubayanus. To understand the contribution of both parental genomes to maltose metabolism in brewing wort, this study focuses on maltose transport in the S. eubayanus type strain CBS 12357T/FM1318. To obtain complete sequences of the MAL loci of this strain, a near-complete genome assembly was generated using the Oxford Nanopore Technology MinION sequencing platform. Except for CHRXII, all sixteen chromosomes were assembled as single contigs. Four loci harboring putative maltose transporter genes (SeMALT1-4), located in subtelomeric regions of CHRII, CHRV, CHRXIII, and CHRXVI, were completely resolved. The near-identical loci on CHRV and CHRXVI strongly resembled canonical S. cerevisiae MAL loci, while those on CHRII and CHRXIII showed different structures suggestive of gene loss. Overexpression of SeMALT1-4 in a maltose-transport-deficient S. cerevisiae strain restored growth on maltose, but not on maltotriose, indicating maltose-specific transport functionality of all four transporters. Simultaneous CRISPR-Cas9-assisted deletion of only SeMALT2 and SeMALT4, which shared 99.7% sequence identity, eliminated growth of S. eubayanus CBS 12357T on maltose. Transcriptome analysis of S. eubayanus CBS 12357T established that SeMALT1 and SeMALT3, are poorly expressed in maltose-grown cultures, while SeMALT2 and SeMALT4 were expressed at much higher levels than SeMALT1 and SeMALT3, indicating that only SeMALT2/4 are responsible for maltose consumption in CBS 12357T. These results represent a first genomic and physiological characterization of maltose transport in S. eubayanus CBS 12357T and provides a valuable resource for further industrial exploitation of this yeast.
Project description:Clavispora lusitaniae, an environmental saprophytic yeast belonging to the CTG clade of Candida, can behave occasionally as an opportunistic pathogen in humans. We report here the genome sequence of the type strain CBS 6936. Comparison with sequences of strain ATCC 42720 indicates conservation of chromosomal structure but significant nucleotide divergence.
Project description:The genome of a high lipid-producing fungus Mucor circinelloides WJ11 (36% w/w lipid, cell dry weight, CDW) was sequenced and compared with that of the low lipid-producing strain, CBS 277.49 (15% w/w lipid, CDW), which had been sequenced by Joint Genome Institute. The WJ11 genome assembly size was 35.4 Mb with a G+C content of 39.7%. The general features of WJ11 and CBS 277.49 indicated that they have close similarity at the level of gene order and gene identity. Whole genome alignments with MAUVE revealed the presence of numerous blocks of homologous regions and MUMmer analysis showed that the genomes of these two strains were mostly co-linear. The central carbon and lipid metabolism pathways of these two strains were reconstructed and the numbers of genes encoding the enzymes related to lipid accumulation were compared. Many unique genes coding for proteins involved in cell growth, carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism were identified for each strain. In conclusion, our study on the genome sequence of WJ11 and the comparative genomic analysis between WJ11 and CBS 277.49 elucidated the general features of the genome and the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in strain WJ11 at the genomic level. The different numbers of genes and unique genes involved in lipid accumulation may play a role in the high oleaginicity of strain WJ11.
Project description:The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compel additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole-genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild-type strain (ATCC 1015) and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence, and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was used to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 Mb of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis supported up-regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases, and protein transporters in the protein producing CBS 513.88 strain. Our results and data sets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.
Project description:Dekkera bruxellensis can outcompete Saccharomyces cerevisiae in environments with low sugar concentrations. It is usually regarded as a spoilage yeast but has lately been identified as an alternative ethanol production organism. In this study, global gene expression in the industrial isolate D. bruxellensis CBS 11270 under oxygen and glucose limitation was investigated by whole transcriptome sequencing using the AB SOLiD technology. Among other observations, we noted expression of respiratory complex I NADH-ubiquinone reductase although D. bruxellensis is a Crabtree positive yeast. The observed higher expression of NADH-generating enzymes compared to NAD(+)-generating enzymes might be the reason for the previously observed NADH imbalance and resulting Custer effect in D. bruxellensis. Low expression of genes involved in glycerol production is probably the molecular basis for high efficiency of D. bruxellensis metabolism under nutrient limitation. No D. bruxellensis homologs to the genes involved in the final reactions of glycerol biosynthesis were detected. A high number of expressed sugar transporter genes is consistent with the hypothesis that the competitiveness of D. bruxellensis is due to a higher affinity for the limiting substrate.
Project description:A novel facultative psychrotroph (strain CBS-1), which accumulates poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), was isolated from soil samples taken from Changbai Mountain, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence data and Biolog analysis identified strain CBS-1 as Pseudomonas mandelii. Transmission electron micrographs revealed abundant electron-transparent intracellular granules. (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the granules were composed of PHB. P. mandelii CBS-1 grew optimally at 20°C. When cultured aerobically for 48 h with sucrose as the sole carbon source, strain CBS-1 yielded a maximum cell density of 29.3 g/L cell dry weight and synthesized 22.3 g/L of PHB. The ability of strain CBS-1 to grow at a low temperature and rapidly synthesize high levels of PHB may reduce the costs of industrial PHB production.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Early pregnancy loss is a major clinical concern in animal and human reproduction, which is largely influenced by embryo implantation. The importance of methionine for embryo implantation is widely neglected.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We performed a series of experiments with primiparous rats fed diets containing different levels of methionine during early pregnancy to investigate the role of methionine in embryonic implantation and pregnancy outcomes, and used them to perform in vivo metabolic assessments and in vitro uterine explant culture. In addition, through transcriptome analysis and silencing the expression of cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS, the key enzyme in transsulfuration pathway) and cell adhesion assay, we measured signalling within Ishikawa, pTr and JAR cells.<h4>Results</h4>We determined the relevance and underlying mechanism of methionine on embryo implantation. We showed that methionine deprivation sharply decreased embryo implantation sites, expression of CBS and transsulfuration pathway end products, which were reversed by maternal methionine supplementation during early pregnancy. Moreover, we found CBS improved methionine-mediated cell proliferation and DNA synthesis by CBS inhibition or interference. In addition, transcriptome analysis also revealed that CBS influenced the signalling pathway-associated cell proliferation and DNA synthesis, as well as a correlation between CBS and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A), implying that MAT2A was possibly involved in cell proliferation and DNA synthesis. Further analysis revealed that MAT2A influenced S-adenosylmethionine receptor SAMTOR expression, and SAMTOR activated mTORC1 and its downstream S6K1 and CAD, ultimately enhancing DNA synthesis in the embryo and uterus.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Taken together, these studies demonstrate that CBS and MAT2A improve methionine-mediated DNA synthesis through SAMTOR/mTORC1/S6K1/CAD pathway during embryo implantation.
Project description:Trichosporon asahii is one of the important opportunistic pathogenic fungi. Here, we first report the draft nuclear chromosome genome sequence and mitochondrial genome sequence of T. asahii CBS 2479, which is a standard strain of T. asahii that was isolated from a progressive psoriatic lesion. COG analysis predicted that 3,131 genes were assigned to 23 functional categories and that 628 genes were predicted to have a general function.