Project description:Previously we showed that extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT) outgrowth and migration on a collagen gel explant model were affected by exposure to decidual natural killer cells (dNK). This study investigates the molecular causes behind this phenomenon. Genome wide DNA methylation of exposed and unexposed EVT was assessed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (450 K array). We identified 444 differentially methylated CpG loci in dNK-treated EVT compared with medium control (P < 0.05). The genes associated with these loci had critical biological roles in cellular development, cellular growth and proliferation, cell signaling, cellular assembly and organization by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Furthermore, 23 mobility-related genes were identified by IPA from dNK-treated EVT. Among these genes, CLDN4 (encoding claudin-4) and FUT4 (encoding fucosyltransferase IV) were chosen for follow-up studies because of their biological relevance from research on tumor cells. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of both CLDN4 and FUT4 in dNK-treated EVT were significantly reduced compared with control (P < 0.01 for both CLDN4 and FUT4 mRNA expression; P < 0.001 for CLDN4 and P < 0.01 for FUT4 protein expression), and were inversely correlated with DNA methylation. Knocking down CLDN4 and FUT4 by small interfering RNA reduced trophoblast invasion, possibly through the altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and/or MMP-9 expression and activity. Taken together, dNK alter EVT mobility at least partially in association with an alteration of DNA methylation profile. Hypermethylation of CLDN4 and FUT4 reduces protein expression. CLDN4 and FUT4 are representative genes that participate in modulating trophoblast mobility.
Project description:Trophoblast invasion ability is an important factor in early implantation and placental development. Recently, pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) was shown to be involved in invasion and proliferation of cancer. However, the role of PTTG1 in trophoblast invasion remains unknown. Thus, in this study we analyzed PTTG1 expression in trophoblasts and its effect on trophoblast invasion activity and determined the mechanism through which PTTG1 regulates trophoblast invasion. Trophoblast proliferation and invasion abilities, regardless of PTTG1 expression, were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, invasion assay, western blot, and zymography after treatment with small interfering RNA against PTTG1 (siPTTG1). Additionally, integrin/Rho-family signaling in trophoblasts by PTTG1 alteration was analyzed. Furthermore, the effect of PTTG1 on trophoblast invasion was evaluated by microRNA (miRNA) mimic and inhibitor treatment. Trophoblast invasion was significantly reduced through decreased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression when PTTG1 expression was inhibited by siPTTG1 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, knockdown of PTTG1 increased expression of integrin alpha 4 (ITGA4), ITGA5, and integrin beta 1 (ITGB1); otherwise, RhoA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Treatment of miRNA-186-5p mimic and inhibitor controlled trophoblast invasion ability by altering PTTG1 and MMP expression. PTTG1 can control trophoblast invasion ability via regulation of MMP expression through integrin/Rho-family signaling. In addition, PTTG1 expression and its function were regulated by miRNA-186-5p. These results help in understanding the mechanism through which PTTG1 regulates trophoblast invasion and thereby implantation and placental development.
Project description:The precise regulation of extravillous trophoblast invasion of the uterine wall is a key process in successful pregnancies. Kisspeptin (KP) has been shown to inhibit cancer cell metastasis and placental trophoblast cell migration. In this study primary cultures of first trimester human trophoblast cells have been utilized in order to study the regulation of invasion and angiogenesis-related genes by KP. Trophoblast cells were isolated from first trimester placenta and their identity was confirmed by immunostaining for cytokeratin-7. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that primary trophoblast cells express higher levels of GPR54 (KP receptor) and KP mRNA than the trophoblast cell line HTR8Svneo. Furthermore, trophoblast cells also expressed higher GPR54 and KP protein levels. Treating primary trophoblast cells with KP induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, while co-treating the cells with a KP antagonist almost completely blocked the activation of ERK1/2 and demonstrated that KP through its cognate GPR54 receptor can activate ERK1/2 in trophoblast cells. KP reduced the migratory capability of trophoblast cells in a scratch-migration assay. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that KP treatment reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 14 and VEGF-A, and increased the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 and 3. These results suggest that KP can inhibit first trimester trophoblast cells invasion via inhibition of cell migration and down regulation of the metalloproteinase system and VEGF-A.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Well-controlled trophoblast invasion at maternal-fetal interface is a critical event for the normal development of placenta. CD82 is a member of transmembrane 4 superfamily, which showed important role in inhibiting tumor cell invasion and migration. We surmised that CD82 are participates in trophoblast differentiation during placenta development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CD82 was found to be strongly expressed in human first trimester placental villous and extravillous trophoblast cells as well as in trophoblast cell lines. To investigate whether CD82 plays a role in trophoblast invasion and migration, we further utilized human villous explants culture model on matrigel and invasion/migration assay of trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo. CD82 siRNA significantly promoted outgrowth of villous explants in vitro (P<0.01), as well as invasion and migration of HTR8/SVneo cells (P<0.05), whereas the trophoblast proliferation was not affected. The enhanced effect of CD82 siRNA on invasion and migration of trophoblast cells was found associated with increased gelatinolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinase MMP9 while over-expression of CD82 markedly decreased trphoblast cell invasion and migration as well as MMP9 activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that CD82 is an important negative regulator at maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy, inhibiting human trophoblast invasion and migration.
Project description:Metastatic carcinoma cells exploit the same molecular machinery that allows human placental cytotrophoblasts to develop an invasive phenotype. As altered expression levels of ADAMTS (ADisintegrin And Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin repeats) subtypes have been associated with cancer progression, we have examined the function and regulation of members of this gene family in epithelial cell invasion using cultures of highly invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts and the poorly invasive JEG-3 cytotrophoblast cell line as model systems. Of the multiple ADAMTS subtypes identified in first trimester human placenta and these two trophoblastic cell types, only ADAMTS-12 was preferentially expressed by extravillous cytotrophoblasts. Transforming growth factor-?1 and interleukin-1?, two cytokines that promote and restrain cytotrophoblast invasion in vitro, were also found to differentially regulate trophoblastic ADAMTS-12 mRNA levels. Loss- or gain-of-function studies confirmed that ADAMTS-12, independent of its proteolytic activity, plays a specific, non-redundant role in trophoblast invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ADAMTS-12 regulated cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and invasion through a mechanism involving the ?v?3 integrin heterodimer. This study identifies a novel biological role for ADAMTS-12, and highlights the importance and complexity of its non-proteolytic domain(s) pertaining to its function.
Project description:Low?density lipoprotein receptor?related protein 6 (LRP6) promotes metastasis in numerous types of cancer; however, its role in trophoblast cells has been less frequently reported. In the present study, the effects of up? and downregulation of LRP6 on trophoblast cells were investigated accordingly. The study aimed to develop a therapeutic target for gestational choriocarcinoma. The expression levels of LRP6 in pre?eclampsia (PE) tissues, trophoblast cell lines and gestational choriocarcinoma cells were determined using reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR) assay. Double?luciferase reporter analysis was conducted to detect the regulatory gene of LRP6. Furthermore, the proliferative, migratory and invasive abilities of trophoblasts and gestational choriocarcinoma cells were determined by CCK?8, wound healing, and Transwell assays, respectively. The expression levels of the genes and proteins of interest [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?2, MMP?9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase?1 (TIMP?1), and TIMP?2] associated with tumor cell invasion were measured by performing RT?qPCR and western blotting, respectively. The National Center for Biotechnology Information database revealed that LRP6 was relatively highly expressed in placental tissues, but was poorly expressed in PE tissues and trophoblast cell lines. The upregulation of LRP6 not only increased the activity, migration and invasion of trophoblast cells, but it also promoted the expression of MMP?2 and MMP?9, whereas it inhibited the expression levels of TIMP?1 and TIMP?2. Such results followed the opposite trend to those of downregulation of LRP6 in gestational choriocarcinoma cells. Moreover, LRP6 was predicted to be the target gene for microRNA (miR)?346, which was highly expressed in PE tissues and trophoblast cell lines. The present study also revealed that LRP6 could reverse the effects of miR?346 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of trophoblast cells. Therefore, considered collectively, the results of the present study have demonstrated that LRP6 is involved in the proliferation, migration and invasion of trophoblast cells via miR?346, and that LRP6 may serve as a potential target in cancer treatment.
Project description:Human trophoblast progenitor cells differentiate via two distinct pathways, to become the highly invasive extravillous cytotrophoblast (CTB) cells (EVT) or fuse to form syncytiotrophoblast. Inadequate trophoblast differentiation results in poor placenta perfusion, or even complications such as pre-eclampsia (PE). Cullin1 (CUL1), a scaffold protein in cullin-based ubiquitin ligases, plays an important role in early embryonic development. However, the role of CUL1 in trophoblast differentiation during placenta development has not been examined. Here we show that CUL1 was expressed in CTB cells and EVT in the first trimester human placentas by immunohistochemistry. CUL1 siRNA significantly inhibited outgrowth of extravillous explants in vitro, as well as invasion and migration of HTR8/SVneo cells of EVT origin. This inhibition was accompanied by decreased gelatinolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and increased expression of tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1 and -2). Consistently, exogenous CUL1 promoted invasion and migration of HTR8/SVneo cells. Notably, CUL1 was gradually decreased during trophoblast syncytialization and CUL1 siRNA significantly enhanced forskolin-induced fusion of choriocarcinoma BeWo cells. CUL1 protein levels in human pre-eclamptic placental villi were significantly lower as compared to their matched control placentas. Taken together, our results suggest that CUL1 promotes human trophoblast cell invasion and dysregulation of CUL1 expression may be associated with PE.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The trophoblast compartment of the placenta comprises various subpopulations with distinct functions. They interact among each other by secreted signals thus forming autocrine or paracrine regulatory loops. We established a first trimester trophoblast cell line (ACH-3P) by fusion of primary human first trimester trophoblasts (week 12 of gestation) with a human choriocarcinoma cell line (AC1-1). RESULTS: Expression of trophoblast markers (cytokeratin-7, integrins, matrix metalloproteinases), invasion abilities and transcriptome of ACH-3P closely resembled primary trophoblasts. Morphology, cytogenetics and doubling time was similar to the parental AC1-1 cells. The different subpopulations of trophoblasts e.g., villous and extravillous trophoblasts also exist in ACH-3P cells and can be immuno-separated by HLA-G surface expression. HLA-G positive ACH-3P display pseudopodia and a stronger expression of extravillous trophoblast markers. Higher expression of insulin-like growth factor II receptor and human chorionic gonadotropin represents the basis for the known autocrine stimulation of extravillous trophoblasts. CONCLUSION: We conclude that ACH-3P represent a tool to investigate interaction of syngeneic trophoblast subpopulations. These cells are particularly suited for studies into autocrine and paracrine regulation of various aspects of trophoblast function. As an example a novel effect of TNF-alpha on matrix metalloproteinase 15 in HLA-G positive ACH-3P and explants was found.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chondromodulin-I (ChM-I) is an anti-angiogenic glycoprotein that is specifically localized at the extracellular matrix of the avascular mesenchyme including cartilage and cardiac valves. In this study, we characterized the expression pattern of ChM-I during early pregnancy in mice in vivo and its effect on invasion of trophoblastic cells into Matrigel in vitro. RESULTS:Northern blot analysis clearly indicated that ChM-I transcripts were expressed in the pregnant mouse uterus at 6.5-9.5 days post coitum. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that ChM-I was localized to the mature decidua surrounding the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)-expressing trophoblasts. Consistent with this observation, the expression of ChM-I mRNA was induced in decidualizing endometrial stromal cells in vitro, in response to estradiol and progesterone. Recombinant human ChM-I (rhChM-I) markedly inhibited the invasion through Matrigel as well as the chemotactic migration of rat Rcho-1 trophoblast cells in a manner independent of MMP activation. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates the inhibitory action of ChM-I on trophoblast migration and invasion, implying the potential role of the ChM-I expression in decidual cells for the regulated tissue remodeling and angiogenesis at feto-maternal interface.
Project description:Claudins are identified as members of the tetraspanin family of proteins, which are integral to the structure and function of tight junction. Recent studies showed an increase in expression of claudins during tumorigenesis, which is associated with loss of cell-cell contact, dedifferentiation, and invasiveness. However, the molecular basis for the causal relationship between claudin expression and cancer progression is not fully understood yet. In this study, we show that claudin-1 plays a causal role in the acquisition of invasive capacity in human liver cells and that c-Abl-protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) signaling is critical for the malignant progression induced by claudin-1. Overexpression of claudin-1 clearly induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and cell invasion and migration in normal liver cells as well as in non-invasive human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Conversely, small interfering RNA targeting of claudin-1 in invasive HCC cells completely inhibited cell invasion. Both c-Abl and PKCdelta are found to be activated in normal liver cell line clones that stably overexpress claudin-1. Inhibition of either c-Abl or PKCdelta alone clearly attenuated MMP-2 activation and impeded cell invasion and migration in both human HCC and normal liver cells expressing claudin-1. These results indicate that claudin-1 is both necessary and sufficient to induce invasive behavior in human liver cells and that activation of c-Abl-PKCdelta signaling pathway is critically required for the claudin-1-induced acquisition of the malignant phenotype. The present observations raise the possibility of exploiting claudin-1 as a potential biomarker for the spread of liver cancer and might provide pivotal points for therapeutic intervention in HCC.