Project description:Global gene expression analysis of grapevine cv. Pinot Noir berries during development and ripening. Time-course comparison of samples collected at three developmental stages (stages 33, 34 and 36 according to the modified E-L system, ref: Coombe BG, Aust J Grape Wine Res 1995, 1: 104-110) during three seasons (2003, 2005 and 2006).
Project description:Salt tolerance in grapevine is associated with the exclusion of chloride ions (Cl–) from the shoot. The rate-limiting step for this process has been identified as the passage of Cl– between the root symplast and the xylem apoplast through membrane integral proteins. To identify candidate genes for these proteins we used a custom microarray to compare the root transcriptomes of three grapevine varieties (Vitis spp.) that differ in their capacity to exclude Cl– from shoots. When challenged with 50 mM Cl– there were transcriptional responses that differed across the rootstocks 140 Ruggeri (a good Cl– excluder) and K51-40 (a poor Cl– excluder), and Cabernet Sauvignon (an intermediate Cl– excluder and Vitis vinifera control). The magnitude of these salt-induced changes correlated with the amount of Cl– accumulated in shoots. Abiotic-stress responsive transcripts (e.g. heat shock proteins) were induced in 140 Ruggeri. Respiratory transcripts were repressed in Cabernet Sauvignon. Expression of hypersensitive response and ROS scavenging transcripts were altered in the sensitive K51-40. Despite these differences, no obvious candidate Cl– transporters were identified from the salt treatment. In contrast, under control conditions where differences in shoot Cl– exclusion between rootstocks were still significant, we identified a number of genes encoding putative ion channels including VvSLAH3, VvALMT1, and possible regulators of these proteins such as VvSnRK2.6 and calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPK) as being differentially expressed between rootstocks. Members of the low affinity nitrate transporter (NRT1), and chloride channel (CLC) families were also identified. We propose these as useful candidates for further study within breeding programs aimed at improving plant salt tolerance in grapevine and other crops. Comparative: genotype versus genotype (control); and control (0 mM Cl) versus salt (50 mM Cl). Rooted leaves were grown as described by Gong et. al. (2010) (Journal of Experimental Botany). After 2 weeks of hydroponic growth, plants were exposed to 0 mM or 50 mM chloride stress for 4 days. Three biological replicates were used for 140 Ruggeri. Four biological replicates were used for Cabernet Sauvignon. Four biological replicates were used for K51-40. Each biological replicate consisted of total roots from four individual plants pooled together.
Project description:Berry skin total protein from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay and Semillon. Treatments were control (well-watered) versus restricted irrigation (water-deficit). Samples were taken from harvest-ripe whole berry clusters following a seasonal water deficit in treatment vines. A comparative analysis between the cultivars and treatments was performed. Associated dataset identifiers: GSE72421, PRJNA268857.
Project description:Background: Grape cultivars and wines are distinguishable by their color, flavor and aroma profiles. Omic analyses (transcripts, proteins and metabolites) are powerful tools for assessing biochemical differences in biological systems. Results: Berry skins of red- (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir) and white-skinned (Chardonnay, Semillon) wine grapes were harvested near optimum maturity from the same experimental vineyard and ˚Brix-to-titratable acidity ratio. Identical sample aliquots were analyzed for transcripts by grapevine whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray and RNA-seq technologies, proteins by nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy, and metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Principal components analysis of each of five Omic technologies showed similar results across cultivars in all Omic datasets. Comparison of the processed data of genes mapped in RNA-seq and microarray data revealed a strong Pearson's correlation (0.80). The exclusion of probesets associated with genes with potential for cross-hybridization on the microarray improved the correlation to 0.93. The overall concordance of protein with transcript data was low with a Pearson's correlation of 0.27 and 0.24 for the RNA-seq and microarray data, respectively. Integration of metabolite with protein and transcript data produced an expected model of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, which distinguished red from white grapes, yet provided detail of individual cultivar differences. Conclusions: The five Omic technologies were consistent in distinguishing cultivar variation. There was high concordance between transcriptomic technologies, but generally protein abundance did not correlate well with transcript abundance. The integration of multiple high-throughput Omic datasets revealed complex biochemical variation amongst five cultivars of an ancient and economically important crop species. Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Semillon berries were harvested from Nevada Agricultural Experiment Station Valley Road Vineyard, Reno, NV, USA. Whole-genome microarray analysis was used to assess the transcriptomic response of berry skins at harvest, approximately 24 °Brix (2011 vintage). Vines were grown under water deficit and well-watered conditions. At least two clusters harvested from non-adjacent vines were used for each of five experimental replicates.