Project description:In plants, multiple lineages have evolved sex chromosomes independently, providing a powerful comparative framework, but few specific determinants controlling the expression of a specific sex have been identified. We investigated sex-determinants in Caucasian persimmon, Diospyros lotus, a dioecious plant with heterogametic males (XY). Male-specific short nucleotide sequences were used to define a male determining region. A combination of transcriptomics and evolutionary approaches detected a Y-specific sex-determinant candidate, OGI, that displays male-specific conservation among Diospyros species. OGI encodes a small RNA targeting the autosomal MeGI gene, a homeodomain transcription factor regulating anther fertility in dosage-dependent fashion. This identification of a feminizing gene suppressed by a Y-chromosome-encoded small RNA contributes to our understanding of the evolution of sex chromosome systems in higher plants. For expression analyses, mixed buds were sampled on June 17, and July 4, 2013, corresponding to the early differentiation stages of male/female primordia, respectively.
Project description:Natural DNA methylation variation was examined in a population of wild Lotus japonicus accessions from Japan Overall design: Whole genome DNA methylation data for 18 wild Lotus japonicus accessions (two with replicates) grown at 20C
Project description:To identify the regulatory targets of the R2R3-Myb transcription factor, LjMyb14, the gene was constitutively over-expressed in Lotus japonicus under the Lotus ubiquitin promoter. The gene expression levels of three biological replicates of the Lotus japonicus (MG20) were averaged and compared to the the gene expression levels of three independent lines of Lotus japonicus japonicus constituitively over expressing LjMyb14 using the Lotus ubiquitin promoter.
Project description:Biological sex determination of human remains by means of a minimally destructive surface acid etch of tooth enamel and subsequent identification of sex chromosome linked isoforms of Amelogenin– an enamel-forming protein - by nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry(nanoLC-MS).
Project description:Embryonic day 13 (E13), E14, and E16 rat testes and ovaries were used for microarray analysis, as well as E13 testis organ cultures that undergo testis morphogenesis and develop seminiferous cords in vitro. A list of 109 genes resulted from a selective analysis for genes present in male gonadal development and with a 1.5-fold change in expression between E13 and E16. Characterization of these 109 genes potentially important for testis development revealed that cytoskeletal-associated proteins, extracellular matrix factors, and signaling factors were highly represented. Throughout the developmental period (E13-E16), sex-enriched transcripts were more prevalent in the male with 34 of the 109 genes having testis-enriched expression during sex determination. In ovaries, the total number of transcripts with a 1.5-fold change in expression between E13 and E16 was similar to the testis, but none of those genes were both ovary enriched and regulated during the developmental period. Genes conserved in sex determination were identified by comparing changing transcripts in the rat analysis herein, to transcripts altered in previously published mouse studies of gonadal sex determination. A comparison of changing mouse and rat transcripts identified 43 genes with species conservation in sex determination and testis development. Profiles of gene expression during E13-E16 rat testis and ovary development are presented and candidate genes for involvement in sex determination and testis differentiation are identified. Analysis of cellular pathways did not reveal any specific pathways involving multiple candidate genes. However, the genes and gene network identified influence numerous cellular processes with cellular differentiation, proliferation, focal contact, RNA localization, and development being predominant. Keywords: expression analysis, testis, ovary, sex determination Overall design: RNA samples from two different groups of 20-40 pooled gonads for each sample. Embrionic testis and ovaries of age E13, E14, or E16, and E13 testis cultured for three days were compared to each other
Project description:The total RNA were extracted from pooled tissues of leaves and flowers from several plants of sacred lotus using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Then small RNAs ranging in 18–30 nucleotides were size fractionated electrophoretically, isolated from the gel, ligated with the 5′ and 3′ RNA adapters. The ligated product was reverse transcribed and subsequently amplified using 10–12 PCR cycles. The purified PCR product was sequenced using Illumina Genome Analyzer II. The qualified reads were used to predict phased small interfering RNAs from Chinese sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). Overall design: Identification of phased small inferfering RNAs in Chinese sacred lotus by analyzing small RNA sequencing profiles of leaves and flowers using Illumina GAII.