Project description:MADS (Minichromosome Maintenance1 Agamous Deficiens Serum response factor) box genes encode transcription factors and they play a key role in growth and development of flowering plants. There are two types of MADS box genes- Type I (serum response factor (SRF)-like) and Type II (myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-like). Type II MADS box genes have a conserved MIKC domain (MADS DNA-binding domain, intervening domain, keratin-like domain, and c-terminal domain) and these were extensively studied in plants. Compared to other plants very little is known about MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis. The present study aims at identifying and analyzing the MADS-box genes present in Camellia sinensis. A comparative bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of the Camellia sinensis sequences along with Arabidopsis thaliana MADS box sequences available in the public domain databases led to the identification of 16 genes which were orthologous to Type II MADS box gene family members. The protein sequences were classified into distinct clades which are associated with the conserved function of flower and seed development. The identified genes may be used for gene expression and gene manipulation studies to elucidate their role in the development and flowering of tea which may pave the way to improve the crop productivity.
Project description:Tea, one of the world's most important beverage crops, provides numerous secondary metabolites that account for its rich taste and health benefits. Here we present a high-quality sequence of the genome of tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS), using both Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. At least 64% of the 3.1-Gb genome assembly consists of repetitive sequences, and the rest yields 33,932 high-confidence predictions of encoded proteins. Divergence between two major lineages, CSS and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA), is calculated to ∼0.38 to 1.54 million years ago (Mya). Analysis of genic collinearity reveals that the tea genome is the product of two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that occurred ∼30 to 40 and ∼90 to 100 Mya. We provide evidence that these WGD events, and subsequent paralogous duplications, had major impacts on the copy numbers of secondary metabolite genes, particularly genes critical to producing three key quality compounds: catechins, theanine, and caffeine. Analyses of transcriptome and phytochemistry data show that amplification and transcriptional divergence of genes encoding a large acyltransferase family and leucoanthocyanidin reductases are associated with the characteristic young leaf accumulation of monomeric galloylated catechins in tea, while functional divergence of a single member of the glutamine synthetase gene family yielded theanine synthetase. This genome sequence will facilitate understanding of tea genome evolution and tea metabolite pathways, and will promote germplasm utilization for breeding improved tea varieties.
Project description:Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis) is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2%) unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR) database and 10,290 (16.67%) were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs). From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9%) novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis. Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species.
Project description:Although the pathway and transcription factor regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Ktze] are known, post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms involved in anthocyanin accumulation have not been comprehensively studied. We obtained the full-length transcriptome of a purple cultivar ('Zijuan') and a normal green cultivar ('Yunkang 10#) of C. sinensis var. asssamica (Masters) showing different accumulation of anthocyanins and catechins through PacBio isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq). In total, 577,557 mapped full-length cDNAs were obtained, and 2,600 average-length gene isoforms were identified in both cultivars. After gene annotations and pathway predictions, we found that 98 key genes in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways could have undergone alternative splicing (AS) events, and identified a total of 238 isoforms involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. We verified expression of the C4H, CHS, FLS, CCOM, F3'5'H, LAR, PAL, CCR, CYP73A13, UDP75L12, UDP78A15/UFGT, UDP94P1, GL3, MYB113, ANR, ANS, F3H, 4CL1, CYP98A3/C3H, CHI, DFR genes and their AS transcripts using qRT-PCR. Correlation analysis of anthocyanin biosynthesis and gene expression results revealed that C4H1, FLS1, PAL2, CCR2, UDP75L122 and MYB113-1 are crucial AS transcripts for regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in C. sinensis var. assamica Our results reveal post-transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tea plants, and provide more new insights into the regulation of secondary metabolism.
Project description:Kucha (Camellia sinensis) is a kind of unique wild tea resources in southwest China, containing sizeable amounts of theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid) and having a special bitter taste both in fresh leaves and made tea. Theacrine has good healthy function locally. But the molecular mechanism of theacrine metabolism in Kucha was still unclear. In order to illuminate the biosynthesis and catabolism of theacrine in Kucha plants, three tea cultivars, C. sinensis 'Shangyou Zhongye' (SY) with low-theacrine, 'Niedu Kucha 2' (ND2) with middle-theacrine and, 'Niedu Kucha 3' (ND3) with high-theacrine, were used for our research. Purine alkaloid analysis and transcriptome of those samples were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and RNA-Seq, respectively. The related gene expression levels of purine alkaloid were correlated with the content of purine alkaloid, and the results of quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR were also confirmed the reliability of transcriptome. Based on the data, we found that theacrine biosynthesis is a relatively complex process, N-methyltransferase (NMT) encoded by TEA024443 may catalyze the methylation at 9-N position in Kucha plant. Our finding will assist to reveal the molecular mechanism of theacrine biosynthesis, and be applied to selection and breeding of Kucha tea cultivars in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. However, the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, is difficult to culture in vitro, to transform, and has a large genome, rendering little genomic information available. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. RESULTS: Using high-throughput Illumina RNA-seq, the transcriptome from poly (A)+ RNA of C. sinensis was analyzed at an unprecedented depth (2.59 gigabase pairs). Approximate 34.5 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 127,094 unigenes, with an average length of 355 bp and an N50 of 506 bp, which consisted of 788 contig clusters and 126,306 singletons. This number of unigenes was 10-fold higher than existing C. sinensis sequences deposited in GenBank (as of August 2010). Sequence similarity analyses against six public databases (Uniprot, NR and COGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG) found 55,088 unigenes that could be annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. Some of the unigenes were assigned to putative metabolic pathways. Targeted searches using these annotations identified the majority of genes associated with several primary metabolic pathways and natural product pathways that are important to tea quality, such as flavonoid, theanine and caffeine biosynthesis pathways. Novel candidate genes of these secondary pathways were discovered. Comparisons with four previously prepared cDNA libraries revealed that this transcriptome dataset has both a high degree of consistency with previous EST data and an approximate 20 times increase in coverage. Thirteen unigenes related to theanine and flavonoid synthesis were validated. Their expression patterns in different organs of the tea plant were analyzed by RT-PCR and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). CONCLUSIONS: An extensive transcriptome dataset has been obtained from the deep sequencing of tea plant. The coverage of the transcriptome is comprehensive enough to discover all known genes of several major metabolic pathways. This transcriptome dataset can serve as an important public information platform for gene expression, genomics, and functional genomic studies in C. sinensis.
Project description:Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is affected by abiotic stress during its growth and development. DNA-binding with one finger (Dof) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In this study, a total of 29 putative Dof TFs were identified based on transcriptome of tea plant, and the conserved domains and common motifs of these CsDof TFs were predicted and analyzed. The 29 CsDof proteins were divided into 7 groups (A, B1, B2, C1, C2.1, C2.2, and D2), and the interaction networks of Dof proteins in C. sinensis were established according to the data in Arabidopsis. Gene expression was analyzed in "Yingshuang" and "Huangjinya" under four experimental stresses by qRT-PCR. CsDof genes were expressed differentially and related to different abiotic stress conditions. In total, our results might suggest that there is a potential relationship between CsDof factors and tea plant stress resistance.
Project description:Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens.
Project description:Lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play a crucial role in growth and development, as well as metabolic processes. However, knowledge of the function of LBD proteins in Camellia sinensis is limited, and no systematic investigations of the LBD family have been reported. In this study, we identified 54 LBD genes in Camellia sinensis. The expression patterns of CsLBDs in different tissues and their transcription responses to exogenous hormones and abiotic stress were determined by RNA-seq, which showed that CsLBDs may have diverse functions. Analysis of the structural gene promoters revealed that the promoters of CsC4H, CsDFR and CsUGT84A, the structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, contained LBD recognition binding sites. The integrative analysis of CsLBD expression levels and metabolite accumulation also suggested that CsLBDs are involved in the regulation of flavonoid synthesis. Among them, CsLOB_3, CsLBD36_2 and CsLBD41_2, localized in the nucleus, were selected for functional characterization. Yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that CsLBD36_2 and CsLBD41_2 have self-activation activities, and CsLOB_3 and CsLBD36_2 can directly bind to the cis-element and significantly increase the activity of the CsC4H, CsDFR and CsUGT84A promoter. Our results present a comprehensive characterization of the 54 CsLBDs in Camellia sinensis and provide new insight into the important role that CsLBDs play in abiotic and flavonoid biosynthesis.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs playing a crucial role in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. Among them, some are highly evolutionally conserved in the plant kingdom, this provide a powerful strategy for identifying miRNAs in a new species. Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most important commercial beverage crops in the world, but only a limited number of miRNAs have been identified. In the present study, a total of 14 new C. sinensis miRNAs were identified by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis from 47452 available C. sinensis ESTs. These miRNAs potentially target 51 mRNAs, which can act as transcription factors, and participate in stress response, transmembrane transport, and signal transduction. Analysis of gene ontology (GO), based on these targets, suggested that 37 biological processes were involved, such as oxidation-reduction process, stress response, and transport. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis inferred that the identified miRNAs took part in 13 metabolic networks. Our study will help further understanding of the essential roles of miRNAs in C. sinensis growth and development, and stress response.