Project description:Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt is one of the most important wild relatives of cultivated rice and exhibits high resistance to many diseases. It has been used as a source of genes for introgression into cultivated rice. However, there are limited genomic resources and little genetic information publicly reported for this species. To better understand the pathways and factors involved in disease resistance and accelerating the process of rice breeding, we carried out a de novo transcriptome sequencing of O. officinalis. In this research, 137,229 contigs were obtained ranging from 200 to 19,214 bp with an N50 of 2331 bp through de novo assembly of leaves, stems and roots in O. officinalis using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Based on sequence similarity searches against a non-redundant protein database, a total of 88,249 contigs were annotated with gene descriptions and 75,589 transcripts were further assigned to GO terms. Candidate genes for plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormones regulation pathways involved in disease-resistance were identified. Further analyses of gene expression profiles showed that the majority of genes related to disease resistance were all expressed in the three tissues. In addition, there are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes in O. officinalis, including two Xa1 genes and three Xa26 genes. All 2 Xa1 genes showed the highest expression level in stem, whereas one of Xa26 was expressed dominantly in leaf and other 2 Xa26 genes displayed low expression level in all three tissues. This transcriptomic database provides an opportunity for identifying the genes involved in disease-resistance and will provide a basis for studying functional genomics of O. officinalis and genetic improvement of cultivated rice in the future.
Project description:The Oryza officinalis complex is the largest species group in Oryza, with more than nine species from four continents, and is a tertiary gene pool that can be exploited in breeding programs for the improvement of cultivated rice. Most diploid and tetraploid members of this group have a C genome. Using a new reference C genome for the diploid species O. officinalis, and draft genomes for two other C genome diploid species Oryza eichingeri and Oryza rhizomatis, we examine the influence of transposable elements on genome structure and provide a detailed phylogeny and evolutionary history of the Oryza C genomes. The O. officinalis genome is 1.6 times larger than the A genome of cultivated Oryza sativa, mostly due to proliferation of Gypsy type long-terminal repeat transposable elements, but overall syntenic relationships are maintained with other Oryza genomes (A, B, and F). Draft genome assemblies of the two other C genome diploid species, Oryza eichingeri and Oryza rhizomatis, and short-read resequencing of a series of other C genome species and accessions reveal that after the divergence of the C genome progenitor, there was still a substantial degree of variation within the C genome species through proliferation and loss of both DNA and long-terminal repeat transposable elements. We provide a detailed phylogeny and evolutionary history of the Oryza C genomes and a genomic resource for the exploitation of the Oryza tertiary gene pool.
Project description:Although endeavors have been made to identify useful wild rice genes that can be used to improve cultivated rice, the virtual reservoir of genetic variation hidden within the wild relatives of cultivated rice is largely untapped. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we investigated the leaf transcriptome of a wild rice O. officinalis with CC genome. Approximately 23 million reads were produced in the species leaf transcriptome analysis and de novo assembly methods constructed 68,132 unigenes. Functional annotations for the unigenes were conducted using sequence similarity comparisons against the following databases: the nonredundant nucleotide database, the nonredundant protein database, the SWISS-PROT database, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins database, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, the Gene Ontology Consortium database, and the InterPro domains database. In addition, a total of 476 unigenes related to disease resistance were identified in O. officinalis, and these unigenes can serve as important genetic resources for cultivated rice breeding and quality improvement. The present study broadens our understanding of the genetic background of non-AA genomic wild rice species and it also provides a bridge to extend studies to other Oryza species with CC genomes.
Project description:Oryza officinalis is an accessible alien donor for genetic improvement of rice. Comparison across a representative panel of Oryza species showed that the wild O. officinalis and cultivated O. sativa ssp. japonica have similar cold tolerance potentials. The possibility that either distinct or similar genetic mechanisms are involved in the low temperature responses of each species was addressed by comparing their transcriptional networks. General similarities were supported by shared transcriptomic signatures indicative of equivalent metabolic, hormonal, and defense status. However, O. officinalis has maintained an elaborate cold-responsive brassinosteroid-regulated BES1-network that appeared to have been fragmented in O. sativa. BES1-network is potentially important for integrating growth-related responses with physiological adjustments and defenses through the protection of photosynthetic machinery and maintenance of stomatal aperture, oxidative defenses, and osmotic adjustment. Equivalent physiological processes are functional in O. sativa but their genetic mechanisms are under the direct control of ABA-dependent, DREB-dependent and/or oxidative-mediated networks uncoupled to BES1. While O. officinalis and O. sativa represent long periods of speciation and domestication, their comparable cold tolerance potentials involve equivalent physiological processes but distinct genetic networks. BES1-network represents a novel attribute of O. officinalis with potential applications in diversifying or complementing other mechanisms in the cultivated germplasm.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polyploidization is a prominent process in plant evolution, whereas the mechanism and tempo-spatial process remained poorly understood. Oryza officinalis complex, a polyploid complex in the genus Oryza, could exemplify the issues not only for it covering a variety of ploidy levels, but also for the pantropical geographic pattern of its polyploids in Asia, Africa, Australia and Americas, in which a pivotal genome, the C-genome, witnessed all the polyploidization process. RESULTS:Tracing the C-genome evolutionary history in Oryza officinalis complex, this study revealed the genomic relationships, polyploid forming and diverging times, and diploidization process, based on phylogeny, molecular-clock analyses and fluorescent in situ hybridization using genome-specific probes. Results showed that C-genome split with B-genome at ca. 4.8 Mya, followed by a series of speciation of C-genome diploids (ca. 1.8-0.9 Mya), which then partook in successive polyploidization events, forming CCDD tetraploids in ca. 0.9 Mya, and stepwise forming BBCC tetraploids between ca. 0.3-0.6 Mya. Inter-genomic translocations between B- and C-genomes were identified in BBCC tetraploid, O. punctata. Distinct FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) patterns among three CCDD species were visualized by C-genome-specific probes. B-genome was modified before forming the BBCC tetraploid, O. malampuzhaensis. CONCLUSION:C-genome, shared by all polyploid species in the complex, had experienced different evolutionary history particularly after polyploidization, e.g., inter-genomic exchange in BBCC and genomic invasion in CCDD tetraploids. It diverged from B-genome at 4.8 Mya, then participated in the tetraploid formation spanning from 0.9 to 0.3 Mya, and spread into tropics of the disjunct continents by transcontinentally long-distance dispersal, instead of vicariance, as proposed by this study, given that the continental splitting was much earlier than the C-genome species radiation. We also find reliable evidence indicated that an extinct BB diploid species in Asia was presumptively the direct genomic donor of their sympatric tetraploids.
Project description:Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt, a very important and special wild rice species, shows abundant genetic diversity and disease resistance features, especially high resistance to bacterial blight. The molecular mechanisms of bacterial blight resistance in O. officinalis have not yet been elucidated. The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant growth, development and stress response. However, little is known about the numbers, structure, molecular phylogenetics, and expression of the WRKY genes under Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) stress in O. officinalis due to lacking of O. officinalis genome. Therefore, based on the RNA-sequencing data of O. officinalis, we performed a comprehensive study of WRKY genes in O. officinalis and identified 89 OoWRKY genes. Then 89 OoWRKY genes were classified into three groups based on the WRKY domains and zinc finger motifs. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supported that the evolution of OoWRKY genes were consistent with previous studies of WRKYs, and subgroup IIc OoWRKY genes were the original ancestors of some group II and group III OoWRKYs. Among the 89 OoWRKY genes, eight OoWRKYs displayed significantly different expression (>2-fold, p<0.01) in the O. officinalis transcriptome under Xoo strains PXO99 and C5 stress 48 h, suggesting these genes might play important role in PXO99 and C5 stress responses in O. officinalis. QRT-PCR analysis and confirmation of eight OoWRKYs expression patterns revealed that they responded strongly to PXO99 and C5 stress 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, and the trends of these genes displaying marked changes were consistent with the 48 h RNA-sequencing data, demonstrated these genes played important roles in response to biotic stress and might even involved in the bacterial blight resistance. Tissue expression profiles of eight OoWRKY genes revealed that they were highly expressed in root, stem, leaf, and flower, especially in leaf (except OoWRKY71), suggesting these genes might be also important for plant growth and organ development. In this study, we analyzed the WRKY family of transcription factors in O.officinalis. Insight was gained into the classification, evolution, and function of the OoWRKY genes, revealing the putative roles of eight significantly different expression OoWRKYs in Xoo strains PXO99 and C5 stress responses in O.officinalis. This study provided a better understanding of the evolution and functions of O. officinalis WRKY genes, and suggested that manipulating eight significantly different expression OoWRKYs would enhance resistance to bacterial blight.
Project description:Cornus officinalis, an important traditional medicinal plant, is used as major constituents of tonics, analgesics, and diuretics. While several studies have focused on its characteristic bioactive compounds, little is known on their biosynthesis. In this study, we performed LC-QTOF-MS-based metabolome and RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling for seven tissues of C. officinalis. Untargeted metabolome analysis assigned chemical identities to 1,215 metabolites and showed tissue-specific accumulation for specialized metabolites with medicinal properties. De novo transcriptome assembly established for C. officinalis showed 96% of transcriptome completeness. Co-expression analysis identified candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of iridoids, triterpenoids, and gallotannins, the major group of bioactive metabolites identified in C. officinalis. Integrative omics analysis identified 45 cytochrome P450s genes correlated with iridoids accumulation in C. officinalis. Network-based integration of genes assigned to iridoids biosynthesis pathways with these candidate CYPs further identified seven promising CYPs associated with iridoids' metabolism. This study provides a valuable resource for further investigation of specialized metabolites' biosynthesis in C. officinalis.