Project description:ABA deficient mutant Osaba1-1 exhibits great resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) infection. To investigate gene expression profile changes at whole genome level between Osaba1-1 and wild-type (Nipponbare) rice during Xoo infection, we employed microarray expression profiling as a discovery platform. Osaba1-1 and wild-type rice plants about 6.5 leaf stage were used in this experiment. For Xoo inoculation, tips (about 3cm) of the fifth and sixth fully expanded leaves were cut off, and then immersed into Xoo (PXO99 strain) inoculum (suspended in sterile distilled water containing 10mM MgCl2, OD≈0.5) immediately for about fifteen seconds. Inoculated rice leaves were collected (approximately 2 cm leaf fragment from the inoculation site) at 0h and 72h post inoculation. Three independent replicate samples were collected at each time point for microarray.
Project description:The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in a wide variety of plant processes, including the initiation of stress-adaptive responses to various environmental cues. Recently, ABA also emerged as a central factor in the regulation and integration of plant immune responses, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Aiming to advance our understanding of ABA-modulated disease resistance, we have analyzed the impact, dynamics and interrelationship of ABA and the classic defense hormone salicylic acid (SA) during progression of rice infection by the leaf blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Consistent with ABA negatively regulating resistance to Xoo, we found that exogenously administered ABA renders rice hypersusceptible to infection, whereas chemical and genetic disruption of ABA biosynthesis and signaling, respectively, led to enhanced Xoo resistance. In addition, we found successful Xoo infection to be associated with extensive reprogramming of ABA biosynthesis and response genes, suggesting that ABA functions as a virulence factor for Xoo. Interestingly, several lines of evidence indicate that this immune-suppressive effect of ABA is due at least in part to suppression of SA-mediated defenses that normally serve to limit pathogen growth. Resistance induced by the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, however, appears to operate in a SA-independent manner and is likely due to induction of non-specific physiological stress. Collectively, our findings favor a scenario whereby virulent Xoo hijacks the rice ABA machinery to cause disease and highlight the importance of ABA and its crosstalk with SA in shaping the outcome of rice-Xoo interactions.
Project description:Bacterial blight caused by the infection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a devastating disease that severely challenges the yield of rice. Here, we report the identification of a "SAPK10-WRKY72-AOS1" module, through which Xoo infection stimulates the suppression of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis to cause Xoo susceptibility. WRKY72 directly binds to the W-box in the promoter of JA biosynthesis gene AOS1 and represses its transcription by inducing DNA hypermethylation on the target site, which finally led to lower endogenous JA level and higher Xoo susceptibility. Abscisic acid (ABA)-inducible SnRK2-type kinase SAPK10 phosphorylates WRKY72 at Thr 129. The SAPK10-mediated phosphorylation impairs the DNA-binding ability of WRKY72 and releases its suppression on AOS1 and JA biosynthesis. Our work highlights a module of how pathogen stimuli lead to plant susceptibility, as well as a potential pathway for ABA-JA interplay with post-translational modification and epigenetic regulation mechanism involved.
Project description:WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are involved in regulating a range of biological processes such as growth, development, and the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Genome-wide expression profiling of OsWRKY TF superfamily genes in rice after infection with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) was performed to elucidate the function of OsWRKY TFs in the interaction between rice and Xoo. Of the 111 OsWRKY TF genes tested, the transcription of 94 genes changed after Xoo infection. The OsWRKY TF genes were classified into eight types according to their expression profiles. Eighty-two genes in Groups I, II, III, IV, VII were up-regulated after exposure to a compatible or an incompatible race of Xoo. Examination of salicylic acid (SA)-deficient rice lines revealed that SA was involved in Xa1-mediated resistance to Xoo infection. OsWRKY TF genes involved in Xa1-mediated resistance were classified according to their SA-dependent or -independent expression. In SA-deficient rice, the expression of 12 of 57 OsWRKY TF genes involved in Xa1-mediated resistance was compromised. Of these six OsWRKY TF genes were induced by SA. OsWRKY88, an example of a gene possibly involved in SA-dependent Xa1-mediated resistance, activated defense related genes and increased resistance to Xoo. Thus, expression profiling of OsWRKY TF genes may help predict the functions of OsWRKY TF genes involved in Xa1-mediated resistance.
Project description:Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight disease, which causes a large reduction in rice production. The successful interaction of pathogens and plants requires a particular nutrient environment that allows pathogen growth and the initiation of both pathogen and host responses. Amino acid synthesis is essential for bacterial growth when bacteria encounter amino acid-deficient environments, but the effects of amino acid synthesis on Xoo pathogenicity are unclear. Here, we systemically deleted the essential genes (leuB, leuC, leuD, ilvC, thrC, hisD, trpC, argH, metB, and aspC) involved in the synthesis of different amino acids and analyzed the effects of these mutations on Xoo virulence. Our results showed that leucine, isoleucine, valine, histidine, threonine, arginine, tryptophan, and cysteine syntheses are essential to Xoo infection. We further studied the role of leucine in the interaction between pathogens and hosts and found that leucine could stimulate some virulence-related responses and regulate Xoo pathogenicity. Our findings highlight that amino acids not only act as nutrients for bacterial growth but also play essential roles in the Xoo and rice interaction.
Project description:Rice is a major crop worldwide. Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) has become one of the most devastating diseases for rice. It has been clear that phosphorylation plays essential roles in plant disease resistance. However, the role of phosphorylation is poorly understood in rice-Xoo system. Here, we report the first study on large scale enrichment of phosphopeptides and identification of phosphosites in rice before and 24 h after Xoo infection.We have successfully identified 2367 and 2223 phosphosites on 1334 and 1297 representative proteins in 0 h and 24 h after Xoo infection, respectively. A total of 762 differentially phosphorylated proteins, including transcription factors, kinases, epi-genetic controlling factors and many well-known disease resistant proteins, are identified after Xoo infection suggesting that they may be functionally relevant to Xoo resistance. In particular, we found that phosphorylation/dephosphorylation might be a key switch turning on/off many epi-genetic controlling factors, including HDT701, in response to Xoo infection, suggesting that phosphorylation switch overriding the epi-genetic regulation may be a very universal model in the plant disease resistance pathway.The phosphosites identified in this study would be a big complementation to our current knowledge in the phosphorylation status and sites of rice proteins. This research represents a substantial advance in understanding the rice phosphoproteome as well as the mechanism of rice bacterial blight resistance.
Project description:Many plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas rely on the secretion of virulence transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins into plant cells to activate plant susceptibility genes to cause disease. The process is dependent on the binding of TALEs to specific elements of host target gene promoters in the plant nucleus. However, it is unclear how TALEs, after injection into host cells, are transferred from the plant cytoplasm into the plant nucleus, which is the key step of successful pathogen infection. Here, we show that the host plant cytoplasm/nuclear shuttle proteins OsImpα1a and OsImpα1b are key components for infection by the TALE-carrying bacterial pathogens Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), the causal agents of bacterial leaf blight and bacterial leaf streak, respectively, in rice. Direct interaction between the second nuclear localization signal of TALEs of Xoo or Xoc and OsImpα1a or OsImpα1b is required for the transportation of TALEs into the nucleus. Conversely, suppression of the expression of OsImpα1a and OsImpα1b genes attenuates the shuttling of TALEs from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and the induction of susceptibility genes, thus improving the broad-spectrum disease resistance of rice to Xoo and Xoc. These results provide an applicable strategy for the improvement of resistance to TALE-carrying pathogens in rice by moderate suppression of the expression of plant nuclear import receptor proteins.
Project description:Pathogenic infection on plants may affect interactions of host-plants with their herbivores, as well as the herbivores with their predators. In this study, the effects of infection by pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes a vascular disease in rice, on rice plants and consequent interactions with a rice herbivore, brown rice planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and its major predator, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, were investigated. The results showed that the rice plants exhibited increased resistance to BPH only at 3?d post-inoculation of Xoo, while the Xoo infection did not affect the development and fecundity of BPH. BPH exhibited a higher preference to Xoo infected rice plants, whereas C. lividipennis preferred the Xoo infected rice plants after BPH fed, but preferred healthy rice plants without BPH fed. Volatile organic compounds emitted from Xoo rice were significantly higher than those from healthy rice plants, Xoo infection on BPH fed plants caused rice plants to emit more the herbivore-induced plant volatiles, while all of these changes correlated to the temporal dimension. These results demonstrated that Xoo infection significantly influenced the interactions of rice plants with two non-vectors, BPH and its predator, although these effects exhibited in a temporal pattern after infection.
Project description:Bacterial blight of rice is an important serious bacterial diseases of rice in many rice-growing regions, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The thiG gene from Xoo strain ZJ173, which is involved with thiazole moiety production in the thiamine biosynthesis pathway, is highly conserved among the members of Xanthomonas. The thiG deletion mutant displayed impaired virulence and growth in thiamine-free medium but maintained its normal growth rate in the rice tissues, indicating that the thiG gene is involved in Xoo virulence. Compared to the wild type strain, the formation of cell-cell aggregates was affected in thiG deletion mutants. Although biofilm formation was promoted, motility and migration in rice leaves were repressed in the thiG mutants, and therefore limited the expansion of pathogen infection in rice. Quorum sensing and extracellular substance are two key factors that contribute to the formation of cell-cell aggregates. Our study found that in the thiG mutant the expression of two genes, rpfC and rpfG, which form a two-component regulatory signal system involved in the regulation of biofilm formation by a second messenger cyclic di-GMP is down-regulated. In addition, our study showed that xanthan production was not affected but the expression of some genes associated with xanthan biosynthesis, like gumD, gumE, gumH and gumM, were up-regulated in thiG mutants. Taken together, these findings are the first to demonstrate the role of the thiazole biosynthsis gene, thiG, in virulence and the formation of aggregates in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.
Project description:Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) lead to the devastating rice bacterial diseases and have a very close genetic relationship. There are tissue-specificity differences between Xoo and Xoc, i.e., Xoo only proliferating in xylem vessels and Xoc spreading in intercellular space of mesophyll cell. But there is little known about the determinants of tissue-specificity between Xoo and Xoc. Here we show that Xoc can spread in the intercellular spaces of mesophyll cells to form streak lesions. But Xoo is restricted to growth in the intercellular spaces of mesophyll cells on the inoculation sites. In vivo, Xoc largely breaks the surface and inner structures of cell wall in mesophyll cells in comparison with Xoo. In vitro, Xoc strongly damages the cellulose filter paper in comparison with Xoo. These results suggest that the stronger cell wall-degradation ability of Xoc than that of Xoo may be directly determining the tissue-specificity.