Project description:BACKGROUND: Recent studies in a growing number of organisms have yielded accumulating evidence that a significant portion of the non-coding region in the genome is transcribed. We address this issue in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: Taking into account the absence of a significantly large yeast EST database, we use microarray expression data collected for genomic regions erroneously believed to be coding to study the expression pattern of non-coding regions in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We find that at least 164 out of 589 (28%) such regions are expressed under specific biological conditions. In particular, looking at the probes that are located opposing other known genes at the same genomic locus, we find that 88 out of 341 (26%) of these genes support antisense transcription. The expression patterns of these antisense genes are positively correlated. We validate these results using RT-PCR on a sample of 6 non-coding transcripts. CONCLUSION: 1. The yeast genome is transcribed on a scale larger than previously assumed. 2. Correlated transcription of antisense genes is abundant in the yeast genome. 3. Antisense genes in yeast are non-coding.
Project description:Transcription initiation is finely regulated to ensure proper expression and function of genes. The regulated transcription initiation in response to various environmental stimuli in a classic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we generated quantitative maps of transcription start sites (TSSs) at a single-nucleotide resolution for S. cerevisiae grown in nine different conditions using no-amplification nontagging Cap analysis of gene expression (nAnT-iCAGE) sequencing. We mapped ?1 million well-supported TSSs, suggesting highly pervasive transcription initiation in the compact genome of the budding yeast. The comprehensive TSS maps allowed us to identify core promoters for ?96% verified protein-coding genes. We corrected misannotation of translation start codon for 122 genes and suggested an alternative start codon for 57 genes. We found that 56% of yeast genes are controlled by multiple core promoters, and alternative core promoter usage by a gene is widespread in response to changing environments. Most core promoter shifts are coupled with altered gene expression, indicating that alternative core promoter usage might play an important role in controlling gene transcriptional activities. Based on their activities in responding to environmental cues, we divided core promoters into constitutive class (55%) and inducible class (45%). The two classes of core promoters display distinctive patterns in transcriptional abundance, chromatin structure, promoter shape, and sequence context. In summary, our study improved the annotation of the yeast genome and demonstrated a much more pervasive and dynamic nature of transcription initiation in yeast than previously recognized.