Project description:Hsi-Te Shih, Yixiong Cai, Nobuaki Niwa, and Yasuhiko Nakahara (2017) A new species of land-locked freshwater shrimp, Neocaridina ikiensis (Decapoda: Caridea: Atyidae), is described from Iki Island, Kyushu, Japan, based on morphological and molecular evidence. This new species can be distinguished from its congeners by a suite of characters, including rostrum structure, number of post-orbital rostral teeth, male first and second pleopods and telson structure. The molecular evidence of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) shows this species has sufficient interspecific divergence, and its high intraspecific variation suggests that it evolved on this island over a long period of time. Based on the molecular clock estimation, the speciation of N. ikiensis n. sp. is supposed to be related with the quiescent periods of volcanoes on this island. This is the second native species of Neocaridina known, after N. denticulata (De Haan, 1844), from the main islands of Japan.
Project description:Recent findings have implicated the gut microbiota as a contributor of metabolic diseases through the modulation of host metabolism and inflammation. Atherosclerosis is associated with lipid accumulation and inflammation in the arterial wall, and bacteria have been suggested as a causative agent of this disease. Here we use shotgun sequencing of the gut metagenome to demonstrate that the genus Collinsella was enriched in patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis, defined as stenotic atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery leading to cerebrovascular events, whereas Roseburia and Eubacterium were enriched in healthy controls. Further characterization of the functional capacity of the metagenomes revealed that patient gut metagenomes were enriched in genes encoding peptidoglycan synthesis and depleted in phytoene dehydrogenase; patients also had reduced serum levels of ?-carotene. Our findings suggest that the gut metagenome is associated with the inflammatory status of the host and patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis harbor characteristic changes in the gut metagenome.
Project description:Accumulating evidence suggests that humans could be considered as holobionts in which the gut microbiota play essential functions. Initial metagenomic studies reported a pattern of shared genes in the gut microbiome of different individuals, leading to the definition of the minimal gut metagenome as the set of microbial genes necessary for homeostasis and present in all healthy individuals. This study analyses the minimal gut metagenome of the most comprehensive dataset available, including individuals from agriculturalist and industrialist societies, also embodying highly diverse ethnic and geographical backgrounds. The outcome, based on metagenomic predictions for community composition data, resulted in a minimal metagenome comprising 3412 genes, mapping to 1856 reactions and 128 metabolic pathways predicted to occur across all individuals. These results were substantiated by the analysis of two additional datasets describing the microbial community compositions of larger Western cohorts, as well as a substantial shotgun metagenomics dataset. Subsequent analyses showed the plausible metabolic complementarity provided by the minimal gut metagenome to the human genome.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The causality and pathogenic mechanism of microbiome composition remain elusive in many diseases, including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to elucidate gut microbiome's role in RA pathology by a comprehensive metagenome-wide association study (MWAS). METHODS:We conducted MWAS of the RA gut microbiome in the Japanese population (n case=82, n control=42) by using whole-genome shotgun sequencing of high depth (average 13?Gb per sample). Our MWAS consisted of three major bioinformatic analytic pipelines (phylogenetic analysis, functional gene analysis and pathway analysis). RESULTS:Phylogenetic case-control association tests showed high abundance of multiple species belonging to the genus Prevotella (e.g., Prevotella denticola) in the RA case metagenome. The non-linear machine learning method efficiently deconvoluted the case-control phylogenetic discrepancy. Gene functional assessments showed that the abundance of one redox reaction-related gene (R6FCZ7) was significantly decreased in the RA metagenome compared with controls. A variety of biological pathways including those related to metabolism (e.g., fatty acid biosynthesis and glycosaminoglycan degradation) were enriched in the case-control comparison. A population-specific link between the metagenome and host genome was identified by comparing biological pathway enrichment between the RA metagenome and the RA genome-wide association study results. No apparent discrepancy in alpha or beta diversities of metagenome was found between RA cases and controls. CONCLUSION:Our shotgun sequencing-based MWAS highlights a novel link among the gut microbiome, host genome and pathology of RA, which contributes to our understanding of the microbiome's role in RA aetiology.
Project description:Vertebrate gut microbiota provide many essential services to their host. To better understand the diversity of such services provided by gut microbiota in wild rodents, we assembled metagenome shotgun sequence data from a small mammal, the bank vole Myodes glareolus (Rodentia, Cricetidae). We were able to identify 254 metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) that were at least 50% (n?=?133 MAGs), 80% (n?=?77 MAGs) or 95% (n?=?44 MAGs) complete. As typical for a rodent gut microbiota, these MAGs are dominated by taxa assigned to the phyla Bacteroidetes (n?=?132 MAGs) and Firmicutes (n?=?80), with some Spirochaetes (n?=?15) and Proteobacteria (n?=?11). Based on coverage over contigs, Bacteroidetes were estimated to be most abundant group, followed by Firmicutes, Spirochaetes and Proteobacteria. These draft bacterial genomes can be used freely to determine the likely functions of gut microbiota community composition in wild rodents.
Project description:Search of metagenomics sequence databases for homologs of virophage capsid proteins resulted in the discovery of a new family of virophages in the sheep rumen metagenome. The genomes of the rumen virophages (RVP) encode a typical virophage major capsid protein, ATPase and protease combined with a Polinton-type, protein primed family B DNA polymerase. The RVP genomes appear to be linear molecules, with terminal inverted repeats. Thus, the RVP seem to represent virophage-Polinton hybrids that are likely capable of formation of infectious virions. Virion proteins of mimiviruses were detected in the same metagenomes as the RVP suggesting that the virophages of the new family parasitize on giant viruses that infect protist inhabitants of the rumen.