Project description:p53 is an important tumour suppressor with a known role in the later stages of colorectal cancer, but its relevance to the early stages of neoplastic initiation remains somewhat unclear. Although p53-dependent regulation of Wnt signalling activity is known to occur, the importance of these regulatory mechanisms during the early stages of intestinal neoplasia has not been demonstrated.We have conditionally deleted the Adenomatous Polyposis coli gene (Apc) from the adult murine intestine in wild type and p53 deficient environments and subsequently compared the phenotype and transcriptome profiles in both genotypes.Expression of p53 was shown to be elevated following the conditional deletion of Apc in the adult small intestine. Furthermore, p53 status was shown to impact on the transcription profile observed following Apc loss. A number of key Wnt pathway components and targets were altered in the p53 deficient environment. However, the aberrant phenotype observed following loss of Apc (rapid nuclear localisation of beta-catenin, increased levels of DNA damage, nuclear atypia, perturbed cell death, proliferation, differentiation and migration) was not significantly altered by the absence of p53.p53 related feedback mechanisms regulating Wnt signalling activity are present in the intestine, and become activated following loss of Apc. However, the physiological Wnt pathway regulation by p53 appears to be overwhelmed by Apc loss and consequently the activity of these regulatory mechanisms is not sufficient to modulate the immediate phenotypes seen following Apc loss. Thus we are able to provide an explanation to the apparent contradiction that, despite having a Wnt regulatory capacity, p53 loss is not associated with early lesion development.
Project description:The transcriptional changes that occur in response to oxidative stress help direct the decision to maintain cell viability or enter a cell death pathway. Cyclin C-Cdk8 is a conserved kinase that associates with the RNA polymerase II Mediator complex that stimulates or represses transcription depending on the locus. In response to oxidative stress, cyclin C, but not Cdk8, displays partial translocation into the cytoplasm. These findings open the possibility that cyclin C relocalization is a regulatory mechanism governing oxidative stress-induced transcriptional changes. In the present study, the cyclin C-dependent transcriptome was determined and compared to transcriptional changes occurring in oxidatively stressed Mus musculus embryonic fibroblasts. We observed a similar number (∼2000) of genes up or downregulated in oxidatively stressed cells. Induced genes include cellular repair/survival factors while repressed loci were generally involved in proliferation or differentiation. Depleting cyclin C in unstressed cells produced an approximately equal number of genes (∼2400) that were repressed by, or whose transcription required, cyclin C. Consistent with the possibility that cyclin C nuclear release contributes to transcriptional remodeling in response to oxidative stress, we found that 37% cyclin C-dependent genes were downregulated following stress. Moreover, 20% of cyclin C- repressed genes were induced in response to stress. These findings are consistent with a model that cyclin C relocalization to the cytoplasm, and corresponding inactivation of Cdk8, represents a regulatory mechanism to repress and stimulate transcription of stress-responsive genes.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Colorectal cancer (CRC) arises via multiple genetic changes. Mutation of the tumour suppressor gene APC, a key regulator of Wnt signalling, is recognised as a frequent early driving mutation in CRC. We have previously shown that conditional loss of Apc within the murine small intestine (Apcfloxmice) results in acute Wnt signalling activation, altered crypt-villus architecture and many hallmarks of neoplasia. Our transctipomic profiling (Affymetrix Microarrays) and proteomic profiling (iTRAQ-QSTAR) of Apc-deficient intestine inferred the involvement of High Mobility Group Box 1 (Hmgb1) in CRC pathogenesis. Here we assess the contribution of HMGB1 to the crypt progenitor phenotype seen following Apc loss.<h4>Results</h4>Elevated HMGB1 was confirmed in intestinal epithelia and serum following conditional loss of Apc. Treatment of Apcflox mice with anti-HMGB1 neutralising antibody significantly reduced many of the crypt progenitor phenotypes associated with Apc loss; proliferation and apoptosis levels were reduced, cell differentiation was restored and the expansion of stem cell marker expression was eradicated.<h4>Methods</h4>Hmgb1 levels in intestinal epithelia and serum in Apcflox and ApcMin mice were assessed using qRT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA assays. The functional importance of elevated extracellular Hmgb1 was assessed using an anti-HMGB1 neutralising antibody in Apcflox mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>HMGB1 is expressed and secreted from intestinal epithelial cells in response to Wnt signalling activation. This secreted HMGB1 is required to maintain nearly all aspects of the crypt progenitor phenotype observed following Apc loss and add to the body of accumulating evidence indicating that targeting HMGB1 may be a viable novel therapeutic approach.
Project description:Vil-CreERT2 was used to drive loss of APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli) in the murine intestinal epithelium. 4 days post induction, mice were sampled and 1cm of tissue from the proximal intestine was collected into RNA later. This was compared to control (wild-type) intestine. This analysis allows investigation of transcriptional changes following APC loss (and therefore activation of the WNT signalling pathway). Overall design: Expression data from whole intestine comparing wt intestine vs VilCreER APCfl/fl
Project description:Genome wide expression profiling to determine the overlap of Affymetrix-signals with SOLID sequencing RNA was extracted using the Qiagen RNeasy kit following the manufacturers guidelines, arrays were prepared and hybridized following the Affymetrix protocol. Overall design: Mus musculus samples from small intestine and colon, to be compared to transcript data aquired with other techniques
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) maintains the integrity of epithelial barriers by transporting polymeric antibodies and antigens through the epithelial mucosa into the lumen. In this study, we examined the role of pIgR in maintaining gut barrier integrity, which is important for the normal development in mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Cohorts of pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> mice and their wildtype controls were housed under Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) conditions and monitored for weight gain as an indicator of development over time. The general physiology of the gastrointestinal tract was analysed using immunohistochemistry in young (8-12?weeks of age) and aged mice (up to 18?months of age), and the observed immunopathology in pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> mice was further characterised using flow cytometry. Urinary metabolites were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which revealed changes in metabolites that correlated with age-related increase in gut permeability in pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> mice.<h4>Results</h4>We observed that pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> mice exhibited delayed growth, and this phenomenon is associated with low-grade gut inflammation that increased with ageing. The gross intraepithelial lymphocytic (IEL) infiltration characteristic of pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> mice was redefined as CD8?<sup>+</sup>??<sup>+</sup> T cells, the majority of which expressed high levels of CD103 and CD69 consistent with tissue resident memory T cells (T<sub>RM</sub>). Comparison of the urinary metabolome between pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> and wild-type mice revealed key changes in urinary biomarkers fucose, glycine and Vitamin B5, suggestive of altered mucosal permeability. A significant increase in gut permeability was confirmed by analysing the site-specific uptake of sugar probes in different parts of the intestine.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data show that loss of the secretory antibody system in mice results in enhanced accumulation of inflammatory IELs in the gut, which likely reflects ongoing inflammation in reaction to gut microbiota or food antigens, leading to delayed growth in pIgR<sup>-/-</sup> mice. We demonstrate that this leads to the presence of a unique urinary metabolome profile, which may provide a biomarker for altered gut permeability.
Project description:Mutation of the APC gene occurs in a high percentage of colorectal tumors and is a central event driving tumor initiation in the large intestine. The APC protein performs multiple tumor suppressor functions including negative regulation of the canonical WNT signaling pathway by both cytoplasmic and nuclear mechanisms. Published reports that APC interacts with ?-catenin in the chromatin fraction to repress WNT-activated targets have raised the possibility that chromatin-associated APC participates more broadly in mechanisms of transcriptional control. This screening study has used chromatin immunoprecipitation and next-generation sequencing to identify APC-associated genomic regions in colon cancer cell lines. Initial target selection was performed by comparison and statistical analysis of 3,985 genomic regions associated with the APC protein to whole transcriptome sequencing data from APC-deficient and APC-wild-type colon cancer cells, and two types of murine colon adenomas characterized by activated Wnt signaling. 289 transcripts altered in expression following APC loss in human cells were linked to APC-associated genomic regions. High-confidence targets additionally validated in mouse adenomas included 16 increased and 9 decreased in expression following APC loss, indicating that chromatin-associated APC may antagonize canonical WNT signaling at both WNT-activated and WNT-repressed targets. Motif analysis and comparison to ChIP-seq datasets for other transcription factors identified a prevalence of binding sites for the TCF7L2 and AP-1 transcription factors in APC-associated genomic regions. Our results indicate that canonical WNT signaling can collaborate with or antagonize the AP-1 transcription factor to fine-tune the expression of shared target genes in the colorectal epithelium. Future therapeutic strategies for APC-deficient colorectal cancers might be expanded to include agents targeting the AP-1 pathway.
Project description:Conditional deletion of Apc in the murine intestine alters crypt-villus architecture and function. This process is accompanied by multiple changes in gene expression, including upregulation of Cited1, whose role in colorectal carcinogenesis is unknown. Here we explore the relevance of Cited1 to intestinal tumorigenesis. We crossed Cited1 null mice with Apc(Min/+) and AhCre(+)Apc(fl/fl) mice and determined the impact of Cited1 deficiency on tumour growth/initiation including tumour multiplicity, cell proliferation, apoptosis and the transcriptome. We show that Cited1 is up-regulated in both human and murine tumours, and that constitutive deficiency of Cited1 increases survival in Apc(Min/+) mice from 230.5 to 515 days. However, paradoxically, Cited1 deficiency accentuated nearly all aspects of the immediate phenotype 4 days after conditional deletion of Apc, including an increase in cell death and enhanced perturbation of differentiation, including of the stem cell compartment. Transcriptome analysis revealed multiple pathway changes, including p53, PI3K and Wnt. The activation of Wnt through Cited1 deficiency correlated with increased transcription of ?-catenin and increased levels of dephosphorylated ?-catenin. Hence, immediately following deletion of Apc, Cited1 normally restrains the Wnt pathway at the level of ?-catenin. Thus deficiency of Cited1 leads to hyper-activation of Wnt signaling and an exaggerated Wnt phenotype including elevated cell death. Cited1 deficiency decreases intestinal tumourigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice and impacts upon a number of oncogenic signaling pathways, including Wnt. This restraint imposed by Cited1 is consistent with a requirement for Cited1 to constrain Wnt activity to a level commensurate with optimal adenoma formation and maintenance, and provides one mechanism for tumour repression in the absence of Cited1.
Project description:BACKGROUND: p53 is an important tumor suppressor with a known role in the later stages of colorectal cancer, but its relevance to the early stages of neoplastic initiation remains somewhat unclear. Although p53-dependent regulation of Wnt signalling activity is known to occur, the importance of these regulatory mechanisms during the early stages of intestinal neoplasia has not been demonstrated. METHODS: We have conditionally deleted the Adenomatous Polyposis coli gene (Apc) from the adult murine intestine in wild type and p53 deficient environments and subsequently compared the phenotype and transcriptome profiles in both genotypes. RESULTS: Expression of p53 was shown to be elevated following the conditional deletion of Apc in the adult small intestine. Furthermore, p53 status was shown to impact on the transcription profile observed following Apc loss. A number of key Wnt pathway components and targets were altered in the p53 deficient environment. However, the aberrant phenotype observed following loss of Apc (rapid nuclear localisation of beta-catenin, increased levels of DNA damage, nuclear atypia, perturbed cell death, proliferation, differentiation and migration) was not significantly altered by the absence of p53. CONCLUSION: p53 related feedback mechanisms regulating Wnt signalling activity are present in the intestine, and become activated following loss of Apc. However, the physiological Wnt pathway regulation by p53 appears to be overwhelmed by Apc loss and consequently the activity of these regulatory mechanisms is not sufficient to modulate the immediate phenotypes seen following Apc loss. Thus we are able to provide an explanation to the apparent contradiction that, despite having a Wnt regulatory capacity, p53 loss is not associated with early lesion development. Samples were collected from genetically modified mice. Gene recombination was induced using IP administration of beta-napthoflavone.