Project description:A strand-specific transcriptome sequencing strategy, directional ligation sequencing or DeLi-seq, was employed to profile antisense transcriptome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Under both normal and heat shock conditions, we found that polyadenylated antisense transcripts are broadly expressed while distinct expression patterns were observed for protein-coding and non-coding loci. Dominant antisense expression is enriched in protein-coding genes involved in meiosis or stress response pathways. Detailed analyses further suggest that antisense transcripts are independently regulated with respect to their sense transcripts, and diverse mechanisms might be potentially involved in the biogenesis and degradation of antisense RNAs. Taken together, antisense transcription may have profound impacts on global gene regulation in S. pombe.
Project description:Natural variation within species reveals aspects of genome evolution and function. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an important model for eukaryotic biology, but researchers typically use one standard laboratory strain. To extend the usefulness of this model, we surveyed the genomic and phenotypic variation in 161 natural isolates. We sequenced the genomes of all strains, finding moderate genetic diversity (? = 3 × 10(-3) substitutions/site) and weak global population structure. We estimate that dispersal of S. pombe began during human antiquity (?340 BCE), and ancestors of these strains reached the Americas at ?1623 CE. We quantified 74 traits, finding substantial heritable phenotypic diversity. We conducted 223 genome-wide association studies, with 89 traits showing at least one association. The most significant variant for each trait explained 22% of the phenotypic variance on average, with indels having larger effects than SNPs. This analysis represents a rich resource to examine genotype-phenotype relationships in a tractable model.
Project description:Hrp3_Purification from Schizosaccharomyces pombe 972h- Eukaryotic genome is composed of repeating units of nucleosomes to form chromatin arrays. A canonical gene is marked by nucleosome free region (NFR) at its 5’ end followed by uniformly spaced arrays of nucleosomes. In fission yeast we show both biochemically and in vivo that both Hrp1 and Hrp3 are key determinants of uniform spacing of genic arrays.
Project description:The rate at which new mutations arise in the genome is a key factor in the evolution and adaptation of species. Here we describe the rate and spectrum of spontaneous mutations for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a key model organism with many similarities to higher eukaryotes. We undertook an ?1700-generation mutation accumulation (MA) experiment with a haploid S. pombe, generating 422 single-base substitutions and 119 insertion-deletion mutations (indels) across the 96 replicates. This equates to a base-substitution mutation rate of 2.00 × 10(-10) mutations per site per generation, similar to that reported for the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, these two yeast species differ dramatically in their spectrum of base substitutions, the types of indels (S. pombe is more prone to insertions), and the pattern of selection required to counteract a strong AT-biased mutation rate. Overall, our results indicate that GC-biased gene conversion does not play a major role in shaping the nucleotide composition of the S. pombe genome and suggest that the mechanisms of DNA maintenance may have diverged significantly between fission and budding yeasts. Unexpectedly, CpG sites appear to be excessively liable to mutation in both species despite the likely absence of DNA methylation.
Project description:The metabolic enzyme cytidine triphosphate synthase has recently been found to form micrometer-sized filamentous structures termed cytoophidia, which are evolutionarily conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The cytoophidium represents a novel type of membraneless organelle and behaves dynamically inside the cell. The question of how cytoophidia transport is mediated, however, remains unanswered. For the first time, we detected in this study the active transport of cytoophidia, taking advantage of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as an excellent model for studying membraneless organelles. We demonstrated that actin filaments, not microtubules, are responsible for this transport. Furthermore, we determined that Myo52, a type of myosin V, is required for the active transport of cytoophidia. These results reveal the major players critical to the dynamics of cytoophidia and extend our understanding of intracellular transport of membraneless organelles.-Li, H., Ye, F., Ren, J.-Y., Wang, P.-Y., Du, L.-L., Liu, J.-L. Active transport of cytoophidia in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
Project description:DNA replication origins (ORI) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe colocalize with adenine and thymine (A+T)-rich regions, and earlier analyses have established a size from 0.5 to over 3 kb for a DNA fragment to drive replication in plasmid assays. We have asked what are the requirements for ORI function in the chromosomal context. By designing artificial ORIs, we have found that A+T-rich fragments as short as 100 bp without homology to S. pombe DNA are able to initiate replication in the genome. On the other hand, functional dissection of endogenous ORIs has revealed that some of them span a few kilobases and include several modules that may be as short as 25-30 contiguous A+Ts capable of initiating replication from ectopic chromosome positions. The search for elements with these characteristics across the genome has uncovered an earlier unnoticed class of low-efficiency ORIs that fire late during S phase. These results indicate that ORI specification and dynamics varies widely in S. pombe, ranging from very short elements to large regions reminiscent of replication initiation zones in mammals.
Project description:We cloned the adenylyl cyclase gene from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe using low-stringency hybridization to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase gene. The Sc. pombe gene encodes a 1692-amino acid-residue protein. The identity of this gene was confirmed by studies of its expression in Sa. cerevisiae. Expression of the carboxyl-terminal region of the Sc. pombe adenylyl cyclase protein will suppress a temperature-sensitive mutation in the Sa. cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase gene. Furthermore, Sa. cerevisiae that lack their endogenous adenylyl cyclase gene and express the carboxyl-terminal region of the Sc. pombe adenylyl cyclase protein have measurable adenylyl cyclase activity. The carboxyl-terminal region of this protein has strong homology with the catalytic domain of the Sa. cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase. Also, Sc. pombe adenylyl cyclase, like Sa. cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase, contains a tandemly repeated motif rich in leucine. Neither yeast protein is particularly homologous to the recently cloned Gs-responsive mammalian adenylyl cyclase [Krupinski, J., Coussen, F., Bakalyar, H. A., Tang, W.-J., Feinstein, P. G., Orth, K., Slaughter, C., Reed, R. R. & Gilman, A. G. (1989) Science 244, 1558-1564].
Project description:Eukaryotic telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). Telomeric transcription has been documented in mammals, birds, zebra fish, plants and budding yeast. Here we show that the chromosome ends of Schizosaccharomyces pombe produce distinct RNA species. As with budding yeast and mammals, S. pombe contains G-rich TERRA molecules and subtelomeric RNA species transcribed in the opposite direction of TERRA (ARRET). Moreover, fission yeast chromosome ends produce two novel RNA species: C-rich telomeric repeat-containing transcripts (ARIA) and subtelomeric transcripts complementary to ARRET (?ARRET). RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) associates with pombe chromosome ends in vivo and the telomeric factor Rap1 negatively regulates this association, as well as the cellular accumulation of RNA emanating from chromosome ends. We also show that the RNAPII subunit Rpb7 and the non-canonical poly(A) polymerases Cid12 and Cid14 are involved in the regulation of TERRA, ARIA, ARRET and ?ARRET transcripts. We confirm the evolutionary conservation of telomere transcription, and reveal intriguing similarities and differences in the composition and regulation of telomeric transcripts among model organisms.
Project description:Many genes are regulated as an innate part of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and a complex transcriptional network helps enable the cyclic behavior of dividing cells. This transcriptional network has been studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) and elsewhere. To provide more perspective on these regulatory mechanisms, we have used microarrays to measure gene expression through the cell cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The 750 genes with the most significant oscillations were identified and analyzed. There were two broad waves of cell cycle transcription, one in early/mid G2 phase, and the other near the G2/M transition. The early/mid G2 wave included many genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, possibly explaining the cell cycle oscillation in protein synthesis in S. pombe. The G2/M wave included at least three distinctly regulated clusters of genes: one large cluster including mitosis, mitotic exit, and cell separation functions, one small cluster dedicated to DNA replication, and another small cluster dedicated to cytokinesis and division. S. pombe cell cycle genes have relatively long, complex promoters containing groups of multiple DNA sequence motifs, often of two, three, or more different kinds. Many of the genes, transcription factors, and regulatory mechanisms are conserved between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. Finally, we found preliminary evidence for a nearly genome-wide oscillation in gene expression: 2,000 or more genes undergo slight oscillations in expression as a function of the cell cycle, although whether this is adaptive, or incidental to other events in the cell, such as chromatin condensation, we do not know.
Project description:The pathway of the maloalcoholic fermentation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe was investigated by a 1H-, 2H- and 13C-n.m.r.-spectroscopic study of hydrogen and deuterium distribution on the ethanol produced by S. pombe from L-malic acid in 2H2O and from L-[2-2H]malic acid. Our findings rule out a double-decarboxylation mechanism and agree with a pathway that involves acetaldehyde as intermediate.