Project description:Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (CC398) isolates colonize livestock and can spread to human contacts. Genetic analysis of isolates epidemiologically associated with human-to-human, but not livestock, transmission in multiple countries and continents identified a common clade that was negative for tet(M) and positive for bacteriophage 3. Another group of human-to-human-transmitted isolates belonged to the common livestock-associated clade but had acquired a unique φ7 bacteriophage. [Data is also available from http://bugs.sgul.ac.uk/E-BUGS-124]
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 398 has emerged from pigs to cause human infections in Europe and North America. We used a new 62-strain S. aureus microarray (SAM-62) to compare genomes of isolates from three geographical areas (Belgium, Denmark, and Netherlands) to understand how CC398 colonizes different mammalian hosts. The core genomes of 44 pig isolates and 32 isolates from humans did not vary. However, mobile genetic element (MGE) distribution was variable including SCCmec. Phi3 bacteriophage and human specificity genes (chp, sak, scn) were found in invasive human but not pig isolates. SaPI5 and putative ruminant specificity gene variants (vwb and scn) were common but not pig specific. Virulence and resistance gene carriage was host associated but country specific. We conclude MGE exchange is frequent in CC398 and greatest among populations in close contact. This feature may help determine epidemiological associations among isolates of the same lineage. [Data is also available from http://bugs.sgul.ac.uk/E-BUGS-120]
Project description:This project is intended to study the metabolic adaptation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to host immunity. Because of the nature of the samples RTI RCMRC worked with Dr. Anthony R. Richardson so that the samples would be extracted at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill under the condition that were optimized by RTI RCMRC for broad spectrum metabolomics analysis.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections result in more than 200,000 hospitalizations and 10,000 deaths in the United States each year and remain an important medical challenge. A key factor of S. aureus pathogenesis is the production of virulence proteins that are secreted into the extracellular matrix damaging host tissues and forming abscesses that may serve as replicative niches for the bacteria. We recently discovered that host-derived cis-unsaturated fatty acids activate the transcription and translation of EsxA, a protein that plays a central role in abscess formation in clinically relevant MRSA strains. Additionally, we discovered that fatty acid stimulation of EsxA is dependent on fakA, a gene that encodes a protein responsible for the incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into the S. aureus phospholipid membrane. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of host-fatty-acid-sensing in S. aureus, we performed RNA-Seq analysis on WT Staphylococcus aureus USA300 NRS384, a community-acquired MRSA strain, in the presence and absence of 10μM linoleic acid. Overall design: RNA-Seq analysis was performed on WT Staphylococcus aureus USA300 NRS384 in the presence and absence of 10μM linoleic acid. Each condition was performed in triplicate thereby yielding a total of 6 samples for RNA-Seq analysis.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections result in more than 200,000 hospitalizations and 10,000 deaths in the United States each year and remain an important medical challenge. To better understand the transcriptome of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 NRS384, a community-acquired MRSA strain, we have conducted an RNA-Seq experiment on WT samples. Overall design: RNA-Seq analysis was performed on log phase WT Staphylococcus aureus USA300 NRS384 grown at 30 degrees C and grown at 37 degrees C. Each condition was performed in triplicate thereby yielding a total of 6 samples for RNA-Seq analysis.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive cocci and an important human commensal bacteria and pathogen. S. aureus infections are increasingly difficult to treat because of the emergence of highly resistant MRSA (Methicillin-resistant S. aureus) strains. Here we present a method to study differential gene expression in S. aureus using high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). We use RNA-seq to examine the differential gene expression in S. aureus RN4220 cells containing an exogenously expressed transcription factor and between two S. aureus strains (RN4220 and NCTC8325-4). The information provided by RNA-seq was a significant advance over previously described microarray based techniques. We investigated the sequence and gene expression differences between RN4220 and NCTC8325-4 and used the RNA-seq data to identify S. aureus promoters suitable for in vitro analysis. We used RNA-seq to describe, on a genome wide scale, genes positively and negatively regulated by a phage encoded transcription factor, gp67. RNA-seq offers the ability to study differential gene expression with single-nucleotide resolution, and is a considerable improvement over the predominant genome-wide transcriptome technologies used in S. aureus. RNA-seq analysis of Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 (electrocompetent strain) carrying either empty pRMC2 (inducible expression vector) or pRMC2 carrying the ORF67 gene (encodes gp67). Both strains were grown to OD 0.2 and transgene expression was induced with 100ng/ml anhydrotetracycline. As a control, Staphylococcus aureus strain NCTC8325-4 (non-electrocompetent strain) was grown under identical conditions except without the addition of anhydrotetracycline.
Project description:Several methicillin resistance (SCCmec) clusters characteristic of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains harbor the psm-mec locus. In addition to encoding the cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) mec, this locus has been attributed gene regulatory functions. Here we employed genome-wide transcriptional profiling to define the regulatory function of the psm-mec locus. The immune evasion factor protein A emerged as the primary conserved and strongly regulated target of psm-mec, an effect we show is mediated by the psm-mec RNA. Furthermore, the psm-mec locus exerted regulatory effects that were more moderate in extent and possibly mediated by the PSM-mec peptide. For example, expression of PSM-mec limited expression of mecA, thereby decreasing methicillin resistance. Our study shows that the psm-mec locus has a rare dual regulatory RNA and encoded cytolysin function, both with the potential to enhance MRSA virulence. Furthermore, our findings reveal a specific mechanism underscoring the recently emerging concept that S. aureus strains balance pronounced virulence and high expression of antibiotic resistance. Overall design: wild type vs. mutant
Project description:The clinical development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is currently under evaluation to combat the rapid increase in multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens. However, many AMPs closely resemble components of the human innate immune system, and the ramifications of prolonged bacterial exposure to AMPs are not fully understood. Here we show that in vitro serial passage of a clinical USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain in a host-mimicking environment containing host-derived AMPs results in the selection of stable AMP-resistance. AMP-resistant S. aureus mutants often displayed little to no fitness cost and caused invasive disease in mice. Further, this phenotype coincided with diminished susceptibility to both clinically prescribed antibiotics and human defense peptides. These findings suggest that therapeutic use of AMPs could select for virulent mutants with cross-resistance to human innate immunity as well as antibiotic therapy. Thus, therapeutic use of AMPs and the implications of cross-resistance need to be carefully monitored and evaluated.
Project description:Whole-genome analysis by 62-strain microarray showed variation in resistance and virulence genes on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) between 40 isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain CC22-SCCmecIV but also showed (i) detection of two previously unrecognized MRSA transmission events and (ii) that 7/8 patients were infected with a variant of their own colonizing isolate. [Data is also available from http://bugs.sgul.ac.uk/E-BUGS-128]