Project description:Long noncoding RNAs are emerging as important regulators of cellular functions, but little is known of their role in the human immune system. Here we investigated long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) in 13 subsets of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes by next-generation sequencing-based RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis) and de novo transcriptome reconstruction. We identified over 500 previously unknown lincRNAs and described lincRNA signatures. Expression of linc-MAF-4, a chromatin-associated lincRNA specific to the TH1 subset of helper T cells, was inversely correlated with expression of MAF, a TH2-associated transcription factor. Downregulation of linc-MAF-4 skewed T cell differentiation toward the TH2 phenotype. We identified a long-distance interaction between the genomic regions of the gene encoding linc-MAF-4 and MAF, where linc-MAF-4 associated with the chromatin modifiers LSD1 and EZH2; this suggested that linc-MAF-4 regulated MAF transcription through the recruitment of chromatin modifiers. Our results demonstrate a key role for lincRNA in T lymphocyte differentiation.
Project description:Although intergenic long noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been linked to gene regulation in various tissues, little is known about lincRNA transcriptomes in the T cell lineages. Here we identified 1,524 lincRNA clusters in 42 T cell samples, from early T cell progenitors to terminally differentiated helper T cell subsets. Our analysis revealed highly dynamic and cell-specific expression patterns for lincRNAs during T cell differentiation. These lincRNAs were located in genomic regions enriched for genes that encode proteins with immunoregulatory functions. Many were bound and regulated by the key transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, STAT4 and STAT6. We found that the lincRNA LincR-Ccr2-5'AS, together with GATA-3, was an essential component of a regulatory circuit in gene expression specific to the TH2 subset of helper T cells and was important for the migration of TH2 cells.
Project description:Infectious long-noncoding (lnc) RNAs related to plants can be of both viral and non-viral origin. Viroids are infectious plant lncRNAs that are not related to viruses and carry the circular, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that replicate with host enzymatic activities via a rolling circle mechanism. Viroids interact with host processes in complex ways, emerging as one of the most productive tools for studying the functions of lncRNAs. Defective (D) RNAs, another category of lnc RNAs, are found in a variety of plant RNA viruses, most of which are noncoding. These are derived from and are replicated by the helper virus. D RNA-virus interactions evolve into mutually beneficial combinations, enhancing virus fitness via competitive advantages of moderated symptoms. Yet the satellite RNAs are single-stranded and include either large linear protein-coding ss RNAs, small linear ss RNAs, or small circular ss RNAs (virusoids). The satellite RNAs lack sequence homology to the helper virus, but unlike viroids need a helper virus to replicate and encapsidate. They can attenuate symptoms via RNA silencing and enhancement of host defense, but some can be lethal as RNA silencing suppressor antagonists. Moreover, selected viruses produce lncRNAs by incomplete degradation of genomic RNAs. They do not replicate but may impact viral infection, gene regulation, and cellular functions. Finally, the host plant lncRNAs can also contribute during plant-virus interactions, inducing plant defense and the regulation of gene expression, often in conjunction with micro and/or circRNAs.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent key regulators of gene transcription during the inflammatory response. Recent findings showed lncRNAs to be dysregulated in human diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, allergies, asthma, and cancer. These noncoding RNAs are crucial for immune mechanism, as they are involved in differentiation, cell migration and in the production of inflammatory mediators through regulating protein-protein interactions or their ability to assemble with RNA and DNA. The last interaction can occur in cis or trans and is responsible for all the possible lncRNAs biological effects. Our proposal is to provide an overview on lncRNAs roles and functions related to immunity and immune mediated diseases, since these elucidations could be beneficial to untangle the complex bond between them.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of diverse cellular processes, but their roles in the developing immune system are poorly understood. In this study, we analysed lncRNA expression during human B-cell development by array-based expression profiling of eleven distinct flow-sorted B-cell subsets, comprising pre-B1, pre-B2, immature, naive, memory, and plasma cells from bone marrow biopsies (n = 7), and naive, centroblast, centrocyte, memory, and plasmablast cells from tonsil tissue samples (n = 6), respectively. A remapping strategy was used to assign the array probes to 37630 gene-level probe sets, reflecting recent updates in genomic and transcriptomic databases, which enabled expression profiling of 19579 long noncoding RNAs, comprising 3947 antisense RNAs, 5277 lincRNAs, 7625 pseudogenes, and 2730 additional lncRNAs. As a first step towards inferring the functions of the identified lncRNAs in developing B-cells, we analysed their co-expression with well-characterized protein-coding genes, a method known as "guilt by association". By using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 272 lincRNAs, 471 antisense RNAs, 376 pseudogene RNAs, and 64 lncRNAs within seven sub-networks associated with distinct stages of B-cell development, such as early B-cell development, B-cell proliferation, affinity maturation of antibody, and terminal differentiation. These data provide an important resource for future studies on the functions of lncRNAs in development of the adaptive immune response, and the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies that originate from distinct B-cell subpopulations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The landscape and biological functions of tumor suppressor long noncoding RNAs in breast cancer are still unknown. METHODS:Data from whole transcriptome sequencing of 33 breast specimens in the Harbin Medical University Cancer Center cohort and The Cancer Genome Atlas was applied to identify and validate the landscape of tumor suppressor long noncoding RNAs, which was further validated by The Cancer Genome Atlas pancancer data including 33 cancer types and 12,839 patients. Next, the expression model, prognostic roles, potential biological functions and epigenetic regulation of tumor suppressor long noncoding RNAs were investigated and validated in the breast cancer and pancancer cohorts. Finally, EPB41L4A-AS2 was selected to validate our novel finding, and the tumor suppressive roles of EPB41L4A-AS2 in breast cancer were examined. RESULTS:We identified and validated the landscape of tumor suppressor long noncoding RNAs in breast cancer. The expression of the identified long noncoding RNAs was downregulated in cancer tissue samples compared with normal tissue samples, and these long noncoding RNAs correlated with a favorable prognosis in breast cancer patients and the patients in the pancancer cohort. Multiple carcinogenesis-associated biological functions were predicted to be regulated negatively by these long noncoding RNAs. Moreover, these long noncoding RNAs were transcriptionally regulated by epigenetic modification, including DNA methylation and histone methylation modification. Finally, EPB41L4A-AS2 inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. Mechanistically, EPB41L4A-AS2, acting at least in part as a tumor suppressor, upregulated tumor suppressor gene expression. Moreover, ZNF217 recruited EZH2 to the EPB41L4A-AS2 locus and suppressed the expression of EPB41L4A-AS2 by epigenetically increasing H3K27me3 enrichment. CONCLUSIONS:This work enlarges the functional landscape of known long noncoding RNAs in human cancer and provides novel insights into the suppressive roles of these long noncoding RNAs.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of diverse cellular processes, but their roles in the developing immune system are poorly understood. In this study, we analysed lncRNA expression during human B-cell development by array-based expression profiling of eleven distinct flow-sorted B-cell subsets, comprising pre-B1, pre-B2, immature, naive, memory, and plasma cells from bone marrow biopsies (n=7), and naive, centroblast, centrocyte, memory, and plasmablast cells from tonsil tissue samples (n=6), respectively. A remapping strategy was used to assign the array probes to 37630 gene-level probe sets, reflecting the most recent updates in genomic and transcriptomic databases, which enabled expression profiling of 19579 long noncoding RNAs, comprising 3947 antisense RNAs, 5277 lincRNAs, 7625 pseudogenes, and 2730 additional lncRNAs. As a first step towards inferring the functions of the identified lncRNAs in developing B-cells, we analysed their co-expression with well-characterized protein-coding genes, a method known as â??guilt by associationâ??. By using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 272 lincRNAs, 471 antisense RNAs, 376 pseudogene RNAs, and 64 lncRNAs within seven sub-networks associated with distinct stages of B-cell development, such as early B-cell development, B-cell proliferation, affinity maturation of antibody, and terminal differentiation. These data provide an important resource for future studies on the functions of lncRNAs in development of the adaptive immune response, and the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies that originate from distinct B-cell subpopulations. Tonsils were collected from six patients (homo sapiens) during routine tonsillectomy. Mononuclear cells were isolated from tonsils and prepared for multiparametric flow cytometry using an optimized and validated protocol. B-cell subsets of naive, centroblasts, centrocytes, menory and plasmablast cells were isolated and a total of 30 gene expression profiles were generated using the HuEx-1_0-st-v2-micro array chip from Affymetrix.
Project description:The key information processing units within gene regulatory networks are enhancers. Enhancer activity is associated with the production of tissue-specific noncoding RNAs, yet the existence of such transcripts during cardiac development has not been established. Using an integrated genomic approach, we demonstrate that fetal cardiac enhancers generate long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) during cardiac differentiation and morphogenesis. Enhancer expression correlates with the emergence of active enhancer chromatin states, the initiation of RNA polymerase II at enhancer loci and expression of target genes. Orthologous human sequences are also transcribed in fetal human hearts and cardiac progenitor cells. Through a systematic bioinformatic analysis, we identified and characterized, for the first time, a catalog of lncRNAs that are expressed during embryonic stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes and associated with active cardiac enhancer sequences. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that many of these transcripts are polyadenylated, multi-exonic long noncoding RNAs. Moreover, knockdown of two enhancer-associated lncRNAs resulted in the specific downregulation of their predicted target genes. Interestingly, the reactivation of the fetal gene program, a hallmark of the stress response in the adult heart, is accompanied by increased expression of fetal cardiac enhancer transcripts. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that the activity of cardiac enhancers and expression of their target genes are associated with the production of enhancer-derived lncRNAs.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) exhibit diverse functions, including regulation of development. Here, we combine genome-wide mapping of SMAD3 occupancy with expression analysis to identify lncRNAs induced by activin signaling during endoderm differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We find that DIGIT is divergent to Goosecoid (GSC) and expressed during endoderm differentiation. Deletion of the SMAD3-occupied enhancer proximal to DIGIT inhibits DIGIT and GSC expression and definitive endoderm differentiation. Disruption of the gene encoding DIGIT and depletion of the DIGIT transcript reveal that DIGIT is required for definitive endoderm differentiation. In addition, we identify the mouse ortholog of DIGIT and show that it is expressed during development and promotes definitive endoderm differentiation of mouse ESCs. DIGIT regulates GSC in trans, and activation of endogenous GSC expression is sufficient to rescue definitive endoderm differentiation in DIGIT-deficient hESCs. Our study defines DIGIT as a conserved noncoding developmental regulator of definitive endoderm.
Project description:Although long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been emerging as critical regulators in various tissues and biological processes, little is known about their expression and regulation during the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in inflammatory microenvironment. In this study, we have identified 63 lncRNAs that are not annotated in previous database. These novel lncRNAs were not randomly located in the genome but preferentially located near protein-coding genes related to particular functions and diseases, such as stem cell maintenance and differentiation, development disorders and inflammatory diseases. Moreover, we have identified 650 differentially expressed lncRNAs among different subsets of PDLSCs. Pathway enrichment analysis for neighboring protein-coding genes of these differentially expressed lncRNAs revealed stem cell differentiation related functions. Many of these differentially expressed lncRNAs function as competing endogenous RNAs that regulate protein-coding transcripts through competing shared miRNAs.