Project description:Austropuccinia psidii, the causal agent of myrtle rust, is a biotrophic pathogen whose growth and development depends on the host tissues. The uredospores of A. psidii infect Eucalyptus by engaging in close contact with the host surface and interacting with the leaf cuticle that provides important chemical and physical signals to trigger the infection process. In this study, the cuticular waxes of Eucalyptus spp. were analyzed to determine their composition or structure and correlation with susceptibility/resistance to A. psidii. Twenty-one Eucalyptus spp. in the field were classified as resistant or susceptible. The resistance/susceptibility level of six Eucalyptus spp. were validated in controlled conditions using qPCR, revealing that the pathogen can germinate on the eucalyptus surface of some species without multiplying in the host. CG-TOF-MS analysis detected 26 compounds in the Eucalyptus spp. cuticle and led to the discovery of the role of hexadecanoic acid in the susceptibility of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus phaeotricha to A. psidii. We characterized the epicuticular wax morphology of the six previously selected Eucalyptus spp. using scanning electron microscopy and observed different behavior in A. psidii germination during host infection. It was found a correlation of epicuticular morphology on the resistance to A. psidii. However, in this study, we provide the first report of considerable interspecific variation in Eucalyptus spp. on the susceptibility to A. psidii and its correlation with cuticular waxes chemical compounds that seem to play a synergistic role as a preformed defense mechanism.
Project description:In April 2010, Austropuccinia psidii (formerly Puccinia psidii) was detected for the first time in Australia on the central coast of New South Wales. The fungus spread rapidly along the east coast and can now be found infecting vegetation in a range of native forest ecosystems with disease impacts ranging from minor leaf spots to severe shoot and stem blight and tree dieback. Localised extinction of some plant species has been recorded. In 2014, the impact of A. psidii was observed for the first time in a wet sclerophyll site with a rainforest understory, dominated by species of Myrtaceae, in Tallebudgera Valley, south east Queensland, Australia. This study aimed to determine the impact of A. psidii on individual species and species composition. Here we provide quantitative and qualitative evidence on the significant impact A. psidii has in native ecosystems, on a broader range of species than previously reported. Archirhodomyrtus beckleri, Decaspermum humile, Gossia hillii and Rhodamnia maideniana are in serious decline, with significant increases in tree mortality over the period of our study. This research further highlights the potential of this invasive pathogen to negatively impact native ecosystems and biodiversity.
Project description:Puccinia psidii, the cause of a disease today commonly referred to as Myrtle rust, is considered a high priority quarantine threat globally. It has a wide host range in the Myrtaceae and it is feared that it may result in significant damage to native ecosystems where these plants occur. The fungus is also of considerable concern to plantation forestry industries that propagate Australian Eucalyptus species. In May 2013, symptoms of a rust disease resembling those of P. psidii were observed on an ornamental Myrtaceous shrub in a garden in South Africa. The fungus was identified based on DNA sequence data of the ITS and 5.8S nrRNA gene regions and here we report, for the first time, the presence of P. psidii in Africa.
Project description:Here, we present a draft genome sequence of the type strain IBSBF 435 of Erwinia psidii (Enterobacteriaceae), a phytopathogen that causes bacterial blight on guava (Psidium guava) and dieback and wilt on eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.), both of which are important emerging diseases.
Project description:Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava) and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus). NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database) resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies.