Project description:We analyzed gamaH2Av ChIP-seq from hand dissected stage 10B and 13 follicle cell nuclei. Egg chambers were dissected from wild-type (OrR) or H2Av[ΔCT] ovaries to assess binding at the Drosophila Follicle Cell Amplicons and across the genome. ChIP-seq of gammaH2Av bound to follicle cell DNA from stage 10B and 13 egg chambers, collected from wild-type (OrR) and H2Av[ΔCT] Drosophila ovaries. Sequences analyzed by Illumina sequencing. Two replicates are included for each ChIP reaction.
Project description:Proper development and maturation of a follicle is essential for successful ovulation and reproduction; however, the molecular mechanisms for follicle maturation, particularly for somatic follicle cell differentiation, are poorly understood. During Drosophila oogenesis, the somatic follicle cells encasing oocytes undergo two distinct well-established transitions: the mitotic to endocycle switch at stage 6/7 and the endocycle to gene amplification switch at stage10A/10B. Here, we identify a novel third follicle cell transition that occurs in the final stages of oogenesis (stage 13/14). This late follicle cell transition is characterized by upregulation of the transcription factor Hindsight (Hnt), and downregulation of the homeodomain transcription factor Cut and the zinc-finger transcription factor Tramtrack-69 (Ttk69). We demonstrate that inducing expression of Cut in stage 14 follicle cells is sufficient to inhibit follicle rupture and ovulation through its negative regulation of Hnt and promotion of Ttk69 expression. Our work illustrates the importance of the stage13/14 transition for follicle maturation and demonstrates the complex regulation required for somatic follicle cells to differentiate into a state primed for follicle rupture and ovulation.
Project description:Here we improved BiTS-ChIP (Bonn et al, Nature Protocols 7, 978-994 (2012)) to identify active enhancer and promoter elements genome wide in the 104 cardiomyocytes that constitute the Drosophila heart tube and represents only ~0.5% of the total cell content of the embryo. A transgenic Drosophila strain expressing nuclear GFP under the control of a cardiac specific enhancer (TinC*>GFP) was used for staged embryo collections at stages 13-14 (10-13h of development). After embryo fixation and dissociation, intact fixed nuclei were fluorescent labelling. Purification of this rare nuclear population was achieved by a two-step sorting procedure, yielding ~98% purity. Chromatin was extracted and used for immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) to analyze chromatin modifications at promoters (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac) and enhancers (H3K27ac). Two independent biological replicates (from FACS sorting, chromatin preparations and ChIP-Seq) were performed for each mark and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq.
Project description:Here we improved BiTS-ChIP (Bonn et al, Nature Protocols 7, 978-994 (2012)) to identify active enhancer and promoter elements genome wide in the 104 cardiomyocytes that constitute the Drosophila heart tube and represents only ~0.5% of the total cell content of the embryo. A transgenic Drosophila strain expressing nuclear GFP under the control of a cardiac specific enhancer (TinC*>GFP) was used for staged embryo collections at stages 13-14 (10-13h of development). After embryo fixation and dissociation, intact fixed nuclei were fluorescent labelling.Â Â Purification of this rare nuclear population was achieved by a two-step sorting procedure, yielding ~98% purity. Chromatin was extracted and used for immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) to analyze chromatin modifications at promoters (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac) and enhancers (H3K27ac).Â Â Two independent biological replicates (from FACS sorting, chromatin preparations and ChIP-Seq) were performed for each mark and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq.
Project description:Drosophila oogenesis or follicle development has been widely used to advance the understanding of complex developmental and cell biologic processes. This methods paper describes how to isolate mid-to-late stage follicles (Stage 10B-14) and utilize them to provide new insights into the molecular and morphologic events occurring during tight windows of developmental time. Isolated follicles can be used for a variety of experimental techniques, including in vitro development assays, live imaging, mRNA expression analysis and western blot analysis of proteins. Follicles at Stage 10B (S10B) or later will complete development in culture; this allows one to combine genetic or pharmacologic perturbations with in vitro development to define the effects of such manipulations on the processes occurring during specific periods of development. Additionally, because these follicles develop in culture, they are ideally suited for live imaging studies, which often reveal new mechanisms that mediate morphological events. Isolated follicles can also be used for molecular analyses. For example, changes in gene expression that result from genetic perturbations can be defined for specific developmental windows. Additionally, protein level, stability, and/or posttranslational modification state during a particular stage of follicle development can be examined through western blot analyses. Thus, stage-specific isolation of Drosophila follicles provides a rich source of information into widely conserved processes of development and morphogenesis.
Project description:This chapter presents methods to conduct and analyze genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation of the cohesin complex and the Nipped-B cohesin loading factor in Drosophila cells using high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq). Procedures for isolation of chromatin, immunoprecipitation, and construction of sequencing libraries for the Ion Torrent Proton high throughput sequencer are detailed, and computational methods to calculate occupancy as input-normalized fold-enrichment are described. The results obtained by ChIP-seq are compared to those obtained by ChIP-chip (genomic ChIP using tiling microarrays), and the effects of sequencing depth on the accuracy are analyzed. ChIP-seq provides similar sensitivity and reproducibility as ChIP-chip, and identifies the same broad regions of occupancy. The locations of enrichment peaks, however, can differ between ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq, and low sequencing depth can splinter broad regions of occupancy into distinct peaks.
Project description:Prostaglandins (PGs) are lipid signaling molecules with numerous physiologic functions, including pain/inflammation, fertility, and cancer. PGs are produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, the targets of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In numerous systems, PGs regulate actin cytoskeletal remodeling, however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. To address this deficiency, we undertook a pharmaco-genetic interaction screen during late-stage Drosophila oogenesis. Drosophila oogenesis is as an established model for studying both actin dynamics and PGs. Indeed, during Stage 10B, cage-like arrays of actin bundles surround each nurse cell nucleus, and during Stage 11, the cortical actin contracts, squeezing the cytoplasmic contents into the oocyte. Both of these cytoskeletal properties are required for follicle development and fertility, and are regulated by PGs. Here we describe a pharmaco-genetic interaction screen that takes advantage of the fact that Stage 10B follicles will mature in culture and COX inhibitors, such as aspirin, block this in vitro follicle maturation. In the screen, aspirin was used at a concentration that blocks 50% of the wild-type follicles from maturing in culture. By combining this aspirin treatment with heterozygosity for mutations in actin regulators, we quantitatively identified enhancers and suppressors of COX inhibition. Here we present the screen results and initial follow-up studies on three strong enhancers - Enabled, Capping protein, and non-muscle Myosin II Regulatory Light Chain. Overall, these studies provide new insight into how PGs regulate both actin bundle formation and cellular contraction, properties that are not only essential for development, but are misregulated in disease.
Project description:ChIP-seq study analysing adult Drosophila melanogaster head, glial, neuronal and fat body, as well as embryonic RNA pol II and H2A.v binding by employing the GAL4-UAS system to generate GFP-fusion proteins and ChIP-seq
Project description:Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins counteract Polycomb silencing by an as yet uncharacterized mechanism. A well-known member of the TrxG is the histone methyltransferase Absent, Small, or Homeotic discs 1 (ASH1). In Drosophila ASH1 is needed for the maintenance of Hox gene expression throughout development, which is tightly coupled to preservation of cell identity. In order to understand the molecular function of ASH1 in this process, we performed affinity purification of tandem-tagged ASH1 followed by mass spectrometry (AP-MS) and identified FSH, another member of the TrxG as interaction partner. Here we provide genome-wide chromatin maps of both proteins based on ChIP-seq. Our Dataset comprises of 4 ChIP-seq samples using chromatin from S2 cells which was immunoprecipitated, using antibodies against Ash1, FSH-L and FSH-SL.
Project description:Follicle rupture, the final step in ovulation, utilizes conserved molecular mechanisms including matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps), steroid signaling, and adrenergic signaling. It is still unknown how follicles become competent for follicle rupture/ovulation. Here, we identify a zinc-finger transcription factor Hindsight (Hnt) as the first transcription factor regulating follicle's competency for ovulation in Drosophila. Hnt is not expressed in immature stage-13 follicle cells but is upregulated in mature stage-14 follicle cells, which is essential for follicle rupture/ovulation. Hnt upregulates Mmp2 expression in posterior follicle cells (essential for the breakdown of the follicle wall) and Oamb expression in all follicle cells (the receptor for receiving adrenergic signaling and inducing Mmp2 activation). Hnt's role in regulating Mmp2 and Oamb can be replaced by its human homolog Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1). Our data suggest that Hnt/RREB-1 plays conserved role in regulating follicle maturation and competency for ovulation.