Project description:With its capacity for anaerobic methane oxidation and denitrification, the bacterium Methylomirabilis oxyfera plays an important role in natural ecosystems. Its unique physiology can be exploited for more sustainable wastewater treatment technologies. However, operational stability of full-scale bioreactors can experience setbacks due to, for example, bacteriophage blooms. By shaping microbial communities through mortality, horizontal gene transfer, and metabolic reprogramming, bacteriophages are important players in most ecosystems. Here, we analyzed an infected Methylomirabilis sp. bioreactor enrichment culture using (advanced) electron microscopy, viral metagenomics and bioinformatics. Electron micrographs revealed four different viral morphotypes, one of which was observed to infect Methylomirabilis cells. The infected cells contained densely packed ~55 nm icosahedral bacteriophage particles with a putative internal membrane. Various stages of virion assembly were observed. Moreover, during the bacteriophage replication, the host cytoplasmic membrane appeared extremely patchy, which suggests that the bacteriophages may use host bacterial lipids to build their own putative internal membrane. The viral metagenome contained 1.87 million base pairs of assembled viral sequences, from which five putative complete viral genomes were assembled and manually annotated. Using bioinformatics analyses, we could not identify which viral genome belonged to the Methylomirabilis- infecting bacteriophage, in part because the obtained viral genome sequences were novel and unique to this reactor system. Taken together these results show that new bacteriophages can be detected in anaerobic cultivation systems and that the effect of bacteriophages on the microbial community in these systems is a topic for further study.
Project description:Little information on poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) treatment-associated microbiota in thermophilic anaerobic digestion reactors is available. Here, we provide 16S rRNA gene sequence data on microbiota in a thermophilic anaerobic digestion reactor converting PLLA to methane for 336?days. Data comprising 99,566 total high-quality reads were tabulated at the taxonomic class level.
Project description:Proteins, metabolites, and 16S rRNA measurements were used to examine the community structure and functional relationships within a cellulose degrading anaerobic bioreactor. The bioreactor was seeded with bovine rumen fluid and operated with a 4 day hydraulic retention time on cellulose (avicel) as sole carbon and energy source. The reactor performance and microbial community structure was monitored during the establishment of the cellulose-degrading community. After stable operation was established in the bioreactor, the mixing intensity was increased in order to investigate the effect of a physical disruption of the microbial community structure. Finally, the original conditions were re-established to understand the stability of the microbial community after a perturbation. All factors measured were found to be inter-correlated during these three distinct phases of operation (establishment, perturbation and re-establishment). In particular, the return of community structure and function to pre-perturbed conditions suggests that propionate fermentation and acetate utilization were the explanatory factors for community establishment and re-establishment.
Project description:Microbial methanogenesis in subseafloor sediments is a key process in the carbon cycle on the Earth. However, the cultivation-dependent evidences have been poorly demonstrated. Here we report the cultivation of a methanogenic microbial consortium from subseafloor sediments using a continuous-flow-type bioreactor with polyurethane sponges as microbial habitats, called down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor. We anaerobically incubated methane-rich core sediments collected from off Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, for 826 days in the reactor at 10?°C. Synthetic seawater supplemented with glucose, yeast extract, acetate and propionate as potential energy sources was provided into the reactor. After 289 days of operation, microbiological methane production became evident. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed the presence of metabolically active microbial cells with various morphologies in the reactor. DNA- and RNA-based phylogenetic analyses targeting 16S rRNA indicated the successful growth of phylogenetically diverse microbial components during cultivation in the reactor. Most of the phylotypes in the reactor, once it made methane, were more closely related to culture sequences than to the subsurface environmental sequence. Potentially methanogenic phylotypes related to the genera Methanobacterium, Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina were predominantly detected concomitantly with methane production, while uncultured archaeal phylotypes were also detected. Using the methanogenic community enrichment as subsequent inocula, traditional batch-type cultivations led to the successful isolation of several anaerobic microbes including those methanogens. Our results substantiate that the DHS bioreactor is a useful system for the enrichment of numerous fastidious microbes from subseafloor sediments and will enable the physiological and ecological characterization of pure cultures of previously uncultivated subseafloor microbial life.