Project description:The Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée) is a destructive pest of maize (Zea mays L.). Despite large-scale commercial maize production, little is known about the defensive responses of field-grown commercial maize to O. furnacalis herbivory, and how these responses result in direct and indirect defence against this pest. To elucidate the maize transcriptome response to O. furnacalis feeding, leaves of maize hybrid Jingke968 were infested with O. furnacalis for 0, 2, 4, 12 and 24 h. Ostrinia furnacalis feeding elicited stronger and more rapid changes in the defence-related gene expression (i.e. after 2 h), and more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were up-regulated than down-regulated at all times post-induction (i.e. 2, 4, 12 and 24 h) in the O. furnacalis pre-infested maize plants. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that the DEGs in the O. furnacalis pre-infested maize are involved in benzoxazinoids, phytohormones, volatiles, and other metabolic pathways related to maize resistance to herbivores. In addition, the maize leaves previously infested by O. furnacalis for 24 h showed an obvious inhibition of the subsequent O. furnacalis performance, and maize volatiles induced by O. furnacalis feeding for 24 and 48 h attracted the parasitic wasp, Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke. The increased direct and indirect defences induced by O. furnacalis feeding were correlated with O. furnacalis-induced phytohormones, benzoxazinoids, and volatiles. Together, our findings provide new insights into how commercial maize orchestrates its transcriptome and metabolome to directly and indirectly defend against O. furnacalis at the mid-whorl stage in the field.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée)) is one of the most serious corn pests in Asia. Control of this pest with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been proposed. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between O. furnacalis and B. bassiana are unclear, especially under the conditions that the genomic information of O. furnacalis is currently unavailable. So we sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of O. furnacalis larvae infected by B. bassiana with special emphasis on immunity-related genes.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Illumina Hiseq2000 was used to sequence 4.64 and 4.72 Gb of the transcriptome from water-injected and B. bassiana-injected O. furnacalis larvae, respectively. De novo assembly generated 62,382 unigenes with mean length of 729 nt. All unigenes were searched against Nt, Nr, Swiss-Prot, COG, and KEGG databases for annotations using BLASTN or BLASTX algorithm with an E-value cut-off of 10(-5). A total of 35,700 (57.2%) unigenes were annotated to at least one database. Pairwise comparisons resulted in 13,890 differentially expressed genes, with 5,843 up-regulated and 8,047 down-regulated. Based on sequence similarity to homologs known to participate in immune responses, we totally identified 190 potential immunity-related unigenes. They encode 45 pattern recognition proteins, 33 modulation proteins involved in the prophenoloxidase activation cascade, 46 signal transduction molecules, and 66 immune responsive effectors, respectively. The obtained transcriptome contains putative orthologs for nearly all components of the Toll, Imd, and JAK/STAT pathways. We randomly selected 24 immunity-related unigenes and investigated their expression profiles using quantitative RT-PCR assay. The results revealed variant expression patterns in response to the infection of B. bassiana.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>This study provides the comprehensive sequence resource and expression profiles of the immunity-related genes of O. furnacalis. The obtained data gives an insight into better understanding the molecular mechanisms of innate immune processes in O. furnacalis larvae against B. bassiana.
Project description:Lepidopteran insects use sex pheromones for sexual communication. Pheromone receptors expressed on peripheral olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are critical part to detect the sex pheromones. In genus Ostrinia, several pheromone receptors were functional analyzed in O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis but the knowledge in O. furnacalis was rare. In this study, seven pheromone receptors were deorphanized by heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes. Functional types of sensilla trichoidea were classified by single sensillum recordings to interpret the response pattern of olfactory sensory neurons to Ostrinia pheromone components. OfurOR4 and OfurOR6 responded to the major sex pheromone Z/E12-14:OAc. OfurOR4 is the main receptor for both Z/E12-14:OAc and OfurOR6 mainly responded to E12-14:OAc. Functional differentiation of gene duplication were found between OfurOR5a and OfurOR5b. OfurOR5b showed a broad response to most of the pheromone components in O. furnacalis, whereas OfurOR5a was found without ligands. OfurOR7 showed a specific response to Z9-14:OAc and OfurOR8 mainly responded to Z11-14:OAc and E11-14:OAc. OfurOR3 did not respond to any pheromone components. Our results improved the current knowledge of pheromone reception in Ostrinia species which may contribute to speciation.
Project description:The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is one of the most destructive pests of maize and causes huge losses in maize yield each year. In order to characterize the different developmental stages, a high-throughput sequencing platform was employed to perform de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis for the egg, larva, pupa and adult stages. Approximately 185 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 42,638 unigenes with an average length of 801.94 bp and an N50 length of 1,152 bp. These unigene sequences were annotated and classified by performing Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional classifications. Comparison of the gene expression profiles of the two transitional stages revealed dramatic differences. Some differentially expressed genes are associated with digestion, cuticularization olfactory recognition and wing formation as well as growth and development. In total, 12 putative insect development-related genes were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results and sequencing based on relative expression levels of randomly selected genes confirmed these expression patterns. These data represent the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for O. furnacalis and will facilitate the study of developmental pathways, cuticularization, wing formation and olfactory recognition.
Project description:C-type lectins (CTLs) are a large family of calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins. They function primarily in cell adhesion and immunity by recognizing various glycoconjugates. We identified 14 transcripts encoding proteins with one or two CTL domains from the transcriptome from Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Among them, five (OfCTL-S1 through S5) only contain one CTL domain, the remaining nine (OfIML-1 through 9) have two tandem CTL domains. Five CTL-Ss and six OfIMLs have a signal peptide are likely extracellular while another two OfIMLs might be cytoplasmic. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OfCTL-Ss had 1:1 orthologs in Lepidoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera species, but OfIMLs only clustered with immulectins (IMLs) from Lepidopteran. Structural modeling revealed that the 22 CTL domains adopt a similar double-loop fold consisting of ?-sheets and ?-helices. The key residues for calcium-dependent or independent binding of specific carbohydrates by CTL domains were predicted with homology modeling. Expression profiles assay showed distinct expression pattern of 14 CTLs: the expression and induction were related to the developmental stages and infected microorganisms. Overall, our work including the gene identification, sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, structural modeling, and expression profile assay would provide a valuable basis for the further functional studies of O. furnacalis CTLs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Orthopteran migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, and lepidopteran Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, are two types of insects undergoing incomplete and complete metamorphosis, respectively. Identification of candidate genes regulating wing development in these two insects would provide insights into the further study about the molecular mechanisms controlling metamorphosis development. We have sequenced the transcriptome of O. furnacalis larvae previously. Here we sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of L. migratoria wing discs with special emphasis on wing development-related signaling pathways.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Illumina Hiseq2000 was used to sequence 8.38 Gb of the transcriptome from dissected nymphal wing discs. De novo assembly generated 91,907 unigenes with mean length of 610 nt. All unigenes were searched against five databases including Nt, Nr, Swiss-Prot, COG, and KEGG for annotations using blastn or blastx algorithm with an cut-off E-value of 10-5. A total of 23,359 (25.4%) unigenes have homologs within at least one database. Based on sequence similarity to homologs known to regulate Drosophila melanogaster wing development, we identified 50 and 46 potential wing development-related unigenes from L. migratoria and O. furnacalis transcriptome, respectively. The identified unigenes encode putative orthologs for nearly all components of the Hedgehog (Hh), Decapentaplegic (Dpp), Notch (N), and Wingless (Wg) signaling pathways, which are essential for growth and pattern formation during wing development. We investigated the expression profiles of the component genes involved in these signaling pathways in forewings and hind wings of L. migratoria and O. furnacalis. The results revealed the tested genes had different expression patterns in two insects.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>This study provides the comprehensive sequence resource of the wing development-related signaling pathways of L. migratoria. The obtained data gives an insight into better understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the wing development in L. migratoria and O. furnacalis, two insect species with different metamorphosis types.