Project description:This study in rats was designed to investigate whether whole rhye (WR) can influence the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and gut microbiota composition. For 12 weeks, rats were fed a diet containing either 50% WR or 50% refined rye (RR). Total bacterial DNA was extracted from fecal and cecal samples (n=5 per group). 16S PCR amplification was performed to assess the microbial diversity at the family level using the HuGChip. Amplified DNA was purified and labelled with either Cy3 or Cy5 dye and hybridized on the microarray. A 15 chip study was realized, each corresponding to hybridization with 250ng of labelled 16S rRNA gene amplicons from either mice fecal and cecal samples. Each probe (4441) was synthetized in three replicates.
Project description:We found that mainstream cigarette smoking (4 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks using Kentucky Research Cigarettes 3R4F) resulted in >20% decrease in the percentage of normal Paneth cell population in Atg16l1 T300A mice but showed minimal effect in wildtype littermate control mice, indicating that Atg16l1 T300A polymorphism confers sensitivity to cigarette smoking-induced Paneth cell damage. We performed 16S rRNA sequencing to identify potential microbiota changes associated with Paneth cell defect in Atg16l1 T300A mice exposed to cigarette smoking. Female mice were used at 4-5 weeks of age. Cigarette smoking was performed using smoking chamber with the dosage and schedule as described above. The fecal samples from the mice were collected for 16S rRNA sequencing analysis after completing 6 weeks of smoking.
Project description:A phylogenetic microarray targeting 66 families described in the human gut microbiota has been developped aud used to monitor the gut microbiota's structure and diversity. The microarray format provided by Agilent and used in this study is 8x15K. A study with a total of 4 chips was realized. Arrays 1 and 2: Hybridization with 100ng of labelled 16S rRNA gene amplicons from a mock community sample and 250ng of labelled 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 1 faecal sample. Each Agilent-030618 array probe (4441) was synthetized in three replicates. Arrays 3 and 4: Hybridization with 250ng of labelled 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 2 faecal samples. Each Agilent-40558 array probe (4441) was synthetized in three replicates.
Project description:A three-stage continuous fermentative system was developed to simulate and control physicochemical factors of the gut biology. Inoculation was of each reactor was performed from a human fecal sample which was initially amplified with a batch procedure. Samples from the initial feces, the batch and from the bioreactors media were collected to extract bacterial DNA. 16S PCR amplification was performed to assess the microbial diversity at the family level using the HuGChip. Amplified DNA was purified and labelled with either Cy3 or Cy5 dye and hybridized on the microarray. A 5 chip study was realized, each corresponding to hybridization with 250ng of labelled 16S rRNA gene amplicons from either the initial stool, the batch inoculum or fermentative medium different compartments of the simulated colon (Proximal, Transversal and Distal). Each probe (4441) was synthetized in three replicates.
Project description:The human gut microbiota harbors methanogens represented by the dominant archaeon, Methanobrevibacter smithii, a polyphyletic group of acetogens, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Defining their roles in the H2-economy of the gut has potential therapeutic importance for modulating the efficiency of fermentation of dietary components. We quantified methanogens in fecal samples from 40 healthy adult female monozygotic(MZ) and 28 dizygotic(DZ) twin pairs, analyzed bacterial 16S rRNA datasets generated from their fecal samples to identify taxa that co-occur with methanogens, sequenced the genomes of 20 M. smithii strains isolated from families of MZ and DZ twins, and performed RNA-Seq of a subset of strains to identify their responses to varied formate concentrations. The concordance rate for methanogen carriage was significantly higher for MZ versus DZ twin pairs. Co-occurrence analysis revealed 22 bacterial species-level taxa positively correlated with methanogens: all but two were members of the Clostridiales, with several being, or related to, known hydrogen-producing and -consuming bacteria. The M. smithii pan-genome contains 987 genes conserved in all strains, and 1860 variably represented genes. Strains from MZ and DZ twin pairs had a similar degree of shared genes and SNPs, and were significantly more similar than strains isolated from mothers or members of other families. The 101 adhesin-like proteins(ALPs) in the pan-genome (45±6/strain) exhibit strain-specific differences in expression and responsiveness to formate. We hypothesize that M. smithii strains use their different repertoires of ALPs to create diversity in their metabolic niches, by allowing them to establish syntrophic relationships with bacterial partners with differing metabolic capabilities and patterns of co-occurrence These strains were isolated from human feces, but they are in pure culture now. All the information about each species is associated with the genome accession number Fecal samples from 40 healthy adult female monozygotic(MZ) and 28 dizygotic(DZ) twin pairs, analyzed bacterial 16S rRNA datasets generated from their fecal samples to identify taxa that co-occur with methanogens, sequenced the genomes of 20 M. smithii strains isolated from families of MZ and DZ twins, and performed RNA-Seq of a subset of strains to identify their responses to varied formate concentrations. Strains of Methanobrevibacter smithii were grown in vitro (modified MBC media) to mid-log phase, at 37°C in serum bottles pressurized with 80% hydrogen, 20% CO2 gasses at 30psi. Cells were harvested by centrifugation, and DNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform and ethanol precipitation.
Project description:Significant gut microbiota heterogeneity exists amongst UC patients though the clinical implications of this variance are unknown. European and South Asian UC patients exhibit distinct disease risk alleles, many of which regulate immune function and relate to variation in gut microbiota β-diversity. We hypothesized ethnically distinct UC patients exhibit discrete gut microbiotas with unique luminal metabolic programming that influence adaptive immune responses and relate to clinical status. Using parallel bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS2 sequencing of fecal samples (UC n=30; healthy n=13), we corroborated previous observations of UC-associated depletion of bacterial diversity and demonstrated significant gastrointestinal expansion of Saccharomycetales as a novel UC characteristic. We identified four distinct microbial community states (MCS 1-4), confirmed their existence using microbiota data from an independent UC cohort, and show they co-associate with patient ethnicity and degree of disease severity. Each MCS was predicted to be uniquely enriched for specific amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism pathways and exhibited significant luminal enrichment of metabolic products from these pathways. Using a novel in vitro human DC/T-cell assay we show that DC exposure to patient fecal water led to MCS -specific changes in T-cell populations, particularly the Th1:Th2 ratio, and that patients with the most severe disease exhibited the greatest Th2 skewing. Thus, based on ethnicity, microbiome composition, and associated metabolic dysfunction, UC patients may be stratified in a clinically and immunologically meaningful manner, providing a platform for the development of FMC-focused therapy. Fecal microbiome was assessed with Affymetrix PhyloChip arrays from patients with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls.