Project description:The goal of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) responsible for peanut plant (<i>Arachis hypogaea</i>) defence against <i>Puccinia arachidis</i> (causative agent of rust disease). Genes were identified using a high-throughput RNA-sequencing strategy. In total, 86,380,930 reads were generated from RNA-Seq data of two peanut genotypes, JL-24 (susceptible), and GPBD-4 (resistant). Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG analysis of DEGs revealed essential genes and their pathways responsible for defence response to <i>P. arachidis</i>. DEGs uniquely upregulated in resistant genotype included pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, MLO such as protein, ethylene-responsive factor, thaumatin, and F-box, whereas, other genes down-regulated in susceptible genotype were Caffeate <i>O</i>-methyltransferase, beta-glucosidase, and transcription factors (WRKY, bZIP, MYB). Moreover, various genes, such as Chitinase, Cytochrome P450, Glutathione S-transferase, and R genes such as NBS-LRR were highly up-regulated in the resistant genotype, indicating their involvement in the plant defence mechanism. RNA-Seq analysis data were validated by RT-qPCR using 15 primer sets derived from DEGs producing high correlation value (<i>R</i> <sup>2</sup> = 0.82). A total of 4511 EST-SSRs were identified from the unigenes, which can be useful in evaluating genetic diversity among genotypes, QTL mapping, and plant variety improvement through marker-assisted breeding. These findings will help to understand the molecular defence mechanisms of the peanut plant in response to <i>P. arachidis</i> infection.
Project description:Elsinochromes (ESCs) are virulence factors produced by Elsinoë arachidis which is the cause of peanut scab. However, the biosynthesis pathway of ESCs in E. arachidis has not been elucidated and the potential pathogenic mechanism of E. arachidis is poorly understood. In this study, we report a high-quality genome sequence of E. arachidis. The size of the E. arachidis genome is 33.18Mb, which is comparable to the Ascomycota genome (average 36.91 Mb), encoding 9174 predicted genes. The self-detoxification family including transporters and cytochrome P450 enzymes were analysis, candidate effectors and cell wall degrading enzymes were investigated as the pathogenicity genes by using PHI and CAZy databases. Additionally, the E. arachidis genome contains 24 secondary metabolism gene clusters, in which ESCB1 was identified as the core gene of ESC biosynthesis. Taken together, the genome sequence of E. arachidis provides a new route to explore its potential pathogenic mechanism and the biosynthesis pathway of ESCs.
Project description:Peanut scab caused by Elsinoë arachidis is found throughout China's peanut-growing areas. Elsinochrome produced by E. arachidis is a perylenequinone photosensitive mycotoxin vital to the pathogenic process of the pathogen. In this study, the complex mechanism underlying the regulation of elsinochrome biosynthesis by E. arachidis was investigated based on various nutritional and environmental factors. The initiation of elsinochrome biosynthesis depends on light. E. arachidis produced substantially more quantities of elsinochrome when grown on a semi-synthetic medium (PDA) than when grown on synthetic media with defined ingredients in the presence of light. Elsinochrome accumulation decreased when adjusted with either citrate or phosphate buffers and changing pH suppressed the radical growth. At temperatures ranging from 10°C to 25°C, the production of elsinochrome increased, peaking at 28°C, and it decreased slightly at 30°C. 63 field-collected isolates from China were assessed for the level of elsinochrome production, and pathogenicity analysis was conducted by selecting 12 strains from each 3 of the 4 groups with different levels of elsinochrome production. A direct correlation was observed between elsinochrome production and pathogenicity among the isolates. The results showed elsinochrome biosynthesis to be controlled by E. arachidis and showed elsinochrome to be a vital virulence factor of E. arachidis, required for disease severity.
Project description:A Gram-positive, yellowish bacterium strain AK-1(T) was isolated from soil sample collected from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) crop field and studied by using a polyphasic approach. The organism had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with its classification in the genus Agromyces. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain AK-1(T) was closely related to Agromyces aurantiacus (98.6%) followed by Agromyces soli (98.3%), Agromyces tropicus (97.6%), Agromyces ulmi (97.3%), Agromyces flavus (97.2%), and Agromyces italicus (97.0%), whereas the sequence similarity values with respect to the other Agromyces species with validly published names were between 95.3 and 96.7 ? %. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values obtained between strain AK-1(T) and other related strains were well below the threshold that is required for the proposal of a novel species. The DNA G + C content of the strain is 71.8?mol%. The above data in combination with the phenotypic distinctiveness of AK-1(T) clearly indicate that the strain represents a novel species, for which the name Agromyces arachidis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AK-1(T) (=MTCC 10524(T) = JCM 19251(T)).
Project description:Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt), is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat, affecting production in nearly all wheat-growing regions worldwide. Despite its economic importance, genomic resources for Pt are very limited. In the present study, we have used long-read sequencing (LRS) and the pipeline of FALCON and FALCON-Unzip (v4.1.0) to carry out the first LRS-based de novo genome assembly for Pt. Using 22.4-Gb data with an average read length of 11.6 kb and average coverage of 150-fold, we generated a genome assembly for Pt104 [strain 104-2,3,(6),(7),11; isolate S423], considered to be the founding isolate of a clonal lineage of Pt in Australia. The Pt104 genome contains 162 contigs with a total length of 140.5 Mb and N50 of 2 Mb, with the associated haplotigs providing haplotype information for 91% of the genome. This represents the best quality of Pt genome assembly to date, which reduces the contig number by 91-fold and improves the N50 by 4-fold as compared to the previous Pt race1 assembly. An annotation pipeline that combined multiple lines of evidence including the transcriptome assemblies derived from RNA-Seq, previously identified expressed sequence tags and Pt race 1 protein sequences predicted 29,043 genes for Pt104 genome. Based on the presence of a signal peptide, no transmembrane segment, and no target location to mitochondria, 2,178 genes were identified as secreted proteins (SPs). Whole-genome sequencing (Illumina paired-end) was performed for Pt104 and six additional strains with differential virulence profile on the wheat leaf rust resistance genes Lr26, Lr2a, and Lr3ka. To identify candidates for the corresponding avirulence genes AvrLr26, AvrLr2a, and AvrLr3ka, genetic variation within each strain was first identified by mapping to the Pt104 genome. Variants within predicted SP genes between the strains were then correlated to the virulence profiles, identifying 38, 31, and 37 candidates for AvrLr26, AvrLr2a, and AvrLr3ka, respectively. The identification of these candidate genes lays a good foundation for future studies on isolating these avirulence genes, investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions, and the development of new diagnostic tools for pathogen monitoring.
Project description:A long-standing biological question is how evolution has shaped the genomic architecture of dikaryotic fungi. To answer this, high-quality genomic resources that enable haplotype comparisons are essential. Short-read genome assemblies for dikaryotic fungi are highly fragmented and lack haplotype-specific information due to the high heterozygosity and repeat content of these genomes. Here, we present a diploid-aware assembly of the wheat stripe rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici based on long reads using the FALCON-Unzip assembler. Transcriptome sequencing data sets were used to infer high-quality gene models and identify virulence genes involved in plant infection referred to as effectors. This represents the most complete Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici genome assembly to date (83 Mb, 156 contigs, N50 of 1.5 Mb) and provides phased haplotype information for over 92% of the genome. Comparisons of the phase blocks revealed high interhaplotype diversity of over 6%. More than 25% of all genes lack a clear allelic counterpart. When we investigated genome features that potentially promote the rapid evolution of virulence, we found that candidate effector genes are spatially associated with conserved genes commonly found in basidiomycetes. Yet, candidate effectors that lack an allelic counterpart are more distant from conserved genes than allelic candidate effectors and are less likely to be evolutionarily conserved within the P. striiformis species complex and Pucciniales In summary, this haplotype-phased assembly enabled us to discover novel genome features of a dikaryotic plant-pathogenic fungus previously hidden in collapsed and fragmented genome assemblies.IMPORTANCE Current representations of eukaryotic microbial genomes are haploid, hiding the genomic diversity intrinsic to diploid and polyploid life forms. This hidden diversity contributes to the organism's evolutionary potential and ability to adapt to stress conditions. Yet, it is challenging to provide haplotype-specific information at a whole-genome level. Here, we take advantage of long-read DNA sequencing technology and a tailored-assembly algorithm to disentangle the two haploid genomes of a dikaryotic pathogenic wheat rust fungus. The two genomes display high levels of nucleotide and structural variations, which lead to allelic variation and the presence of genes lacking allelic counterparts. Nonallelic candidate effector genes, which likely encode important pathogenicity factors, display distinct genome localization patterns and are less likely to be evolutionary conserved than those which are present as allelic pairs. This genomic diversity may promote rapid host adaptation and/or be related to the age of the sequenced isolate since last meiosis.