Project description:BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila is a gram-negative gamma-Proteobacterium and the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a form of epidemic pneumonia. It has a water-related life cycle. In industrialized cities L. pneumophila is commonly encountered in refrigeration towers and water pipes. Infection is always via infected aerosols to humans. Although many efforts have been made to eradicate Legionella from buildings, it still contaminates the water systems. The town of Alcoy (Valencian Region, Spain) has had recurrent outbreaks since 1999. The strain "Alcoy 2300/99" is a particularly persistent and recurrent strain that was isolated during one of the most significant outbreaks between the years 1999-2000. RESULTS: We have sequenced the genome of the particularly persistent L. pneumophila strain Alcoy 2300/99 and have compared it with four previously sequenced strains known as Philadelphia (USA), Lens (France), Paris (France) and Corby (England).Pangenome analysis facilitated the identification of strain-specific features, as well as some that are shared by two or more strains. We identified: (1) three islands related to anti-drug resistance systems; (2) a system for transport and secretion of heavy metals; (3) three systems related to DNA transfer; (4) two CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) systems, known to provide resistance against phage infections, one similar in the Lens and Alcoy strains, and another specific to the Paris strain; and (5) seven islands of phage-related proteins, five of which seem to be strain-specific and two shared. CONCLUSIONS: The dispensable genome disclosed by the pangenomic analysis seems to be a reservoir of new traits that have mainly been acquired by horizontal gene transfer and could confer evolutionary advantages over strains lacking them.
Project description:We examined 49 Legionella species, 26 L. pneumophila and 23 non-pneumophila Legionella spp., using partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This approach accurately identified all the L. pneumophila isolates, characterized all non-pneumophila Legionella isolates as such within this genus, and classified most (20/23; 87%) of the non-pneumophila Legionella isolates to the species level.
Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Legionella pneumophila Nagoya-1 strain, serogroup 4, which was isolated from a clinical sample from a patient with legionellosis. Several virulence-associated genes, including those encoding the type IV (Dot/Icm) secretion system and effector proteins, were highly conserved.
Project description:We present the genomic sequence of the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila serogroup 12 strain 570-CO-H (ATCC 43290), a clinical isolate from the Colorado Department of Health, Denver, CO. This is the first example of a genome sequence of L. pneumophila from a serogroup other than serogroup 1. We highlight the similarities and differences relative to six genome sequences that have been reported for serogroup 1 strains.
Project description:During the summer of 2012, a major Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak occurred in Quebec City, Canada, which caused 182 declared cases of Legionnaire's disease and included 13 fatalities. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from 23 patients as well as from 32 cooling towers located in the vicinity of the outbreak were recovered for analysis. In addition, 6 isolates from the 1996 Quebec City outbreak and 4 isolates from patients unrelated to both outbreaks were added to allow comparison. We characterized the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, sequence-based typing, and whole genome sequencing. The comparison of patients-isolated strains to cooling tower isolates allowed the identification of the tower that was the source of the outbreak. Legionella pneumophila strain Quebec 2012 was identified as a ST-62 by sequence-based typing methodology. Two new Legionellaceae plasmids were found only in the epidemic strain. The LVH type IV secretion system was found in the 2012 outbreak isolates but not in the ones from the 1996 outbreak and only in half of the contemporary human isolates. The epidemic strains replicated more efficiently and were more cytotoxic to human macrophages than the environmental strains tested. At least four Icm/Dot effectors in the epidemic strains were absent in the environmental strains suggesting that some effectors could impact the intracellular replication in human macrophages. Sequence-based typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis combined with whole genome sequencing allowed the identification and the analysis of the causative strain including its likely environmental source.
Project description:We report here the genomic sequence of Legionella pneumophila strain LPE509 from the water distribution system of a hospital in Shanghai, China. This is the first complete genome sequence of an environmental L. pneumophila isolate. Genomic analyses identified approximately 600 genes unique to LPE509 compared to those of the 7 available L. pneumophila genomes.
Project description:Here, we report the complete genome sequences of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains OLDA and Pontiac, which predate the 1976 Philadelphia Legionnaires' disease outbreak. Strain OLDA was isolated in 1947 from an apparent sporadic case, and strain Pontiac caused an explosive outbreak at a Michigan health department in 1968.
Project description:Research on Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, has been hampered due to the lack of selectable markers for genetic manipulation. We report the construction of a mutant strain of L. pneumophila lacking loxA, a chromosomally encoded ?-lactamase, that has enhanced sensitivity to ampicillin. Also described are a method for converting Legionella strains to ampicillin sensitivity and conditions for utilizing bla as a selectable marker.
Project description:Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular pathogen responsible for severe lung disease in humans, known as legionellosis or Legionnaires' disease. Previously, we reported on the approximately 60-kDa glucosyltransferase (Lgt1) from Legionella pneumophila, which modified eukaryotic elongation factor 1A. In the present study, using L. pneumophila Philadelphia-1, Lens, Paris, and Corby genome databases, we identified several genes coding for proteins with considerable sequence homology to Lgt1. These new enzymes form three subfamilies, termed Lgt1 to -3, glucosylate mammalian elongation factor eEF1A at serine-53, inhibit its activity, and subsequently kill target eukaryotic cells. Expression studies on L. pneumophila grown in broth medium or in Acanthamoeba castellanii revealed that production of Lgt1 was maximal at stationary phase of broth culture or during the late phase of Legionella-host cell interaction, respectively. In contrast, synthesis of Lgt3 peaked during the lag phase of liquid culture and at early steps of bacterium-amoeba interaction. Thus, the data indicate that members of the L. pneumophila glucosyltransferase family are differentially regulated, affect protein synthesis of host cells, and represent potential virulence factors of Legionella.
Project description:Between 2000 and 2017, a total of 236 Legionella species isolates from Arizona were submitted to the CDC for reference testing. Most of these isolates were recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. Although the incidence of legionellosis in Arizona is less than the overall U.S. incidence, Arizona submits the largest number of isolates to the CDC for testing compared to those from other states. In addition to a higher proportion of culture confirmation of legionellosis cases in Arizona than in other states, all Legionella pneumophila isolates are forwarded to the CDC for confirmatory testing. Compared to that from other states, a higher proportion of isolates from Arizona were identified as belonging to L. pneumophila serogroups 6 (28.2%) and 8 (8.9%). Genome sequencing was conducted on 113 L. pneumophila clinical isolates not known to be associated with outbreaks in order to understand the genomic diversity of strains causing legionellosis in Arizona. Whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) revealed 17 clusters of isolates sharing at least 99% identical allele content. Only two of these clusters contained isolates from more than one individual with exposure at the same facility. Additionally, wgMLST analysis revealed a group of 31 isolates predominantly belonging to serogroup 6 and containing isolates from three separate clusters. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and pangenome analysis were used to further resolve genome sequences belonging to a subset of isolates. This study demonstrates that culture of clinical specimens for Legionella spp. reveals a highly diverse population of strains causing legionellosis in Arizona which could be underappreciated using other diagnostic approaches.IMPORTANCE Culture of clinical specimens from patients with Legionnaires' disease is rarely performed, restricting our understanding of the diversity and ecology of Legionella Culture of Legionella from patient specimens in Arizona revealed a greater proportion of non-serogroup 1 Legionella pneumophila isolates than in other U.S. isolates examined. Disease caused by such isolates may go undetected using other diagnostic methods. Moreover, genome sequence analysis revealed that these isolates were genetically diverse, and understanding these populations may help in future environmental source attribution studies.