Project description:The Taehwa River Estuary is one of the largest enclosed bays in east Korea. In order to understand the environment of the Taehwa River Estuary, the microbial diversity in the sediment of the estuary was investigated through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The predominant phyla in all locations were <i>Proteobacteria</i> and <i>Bacteroidetes</i>.
Project description:Deterioration of sediment quality has been found in the Nakdong River Estuary after large-scale reclamations. Here, I report microbial diversity in sediments of Nakdong River Estuary in the Republic of Korea based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing by next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. The dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes.
Project description:Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is performed by "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" (M. oxyfera), which connects the carbon and nitrogen global nutrient cycles. In the present study, M. oxyfera-like bacteria sequences were successfully recovered from Yellow River Estuary sediments using specific primers for 16S rRNA and pmoA genes. A M. oxyfera-like sequences analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed greater diversity compared with the pmoA gene; the 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the Yellow River Estuary sediments belong to groups A as well as B and were mainly found in freshwater habitats. Quantitative PCR showed that 16S rRNA gene abundance varied from 9.28±0.11×10(3) to 2.10±0.13×10(5) copies g(-1) (dry weight), and the pmoA gene abundance ranged from 8.63±0.50×10(3) to 1.83±0.18×10(5) copies g(-1) (dry weight). A correlation analysis showed that the total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium (NH4(+)) as well as the ratio of total phosphorus to total nitrogen (TP/TN) influenced the M. oxyfera-like bacteria distribution in the Yellow River Estuary sediments. These findings will aid in understanding the n-damo bacterial distribution pattern as well as their correlation with surrounding environmental factors in temperate estuarine ecosystems.
Project description:Sediment microbial communities from plain river networks exert different effects on pollutant transformation and migration in lake basins. In this study, we examined millions of Illumina reads (16S rRNA gene amplicons) to compare lake, lake wetland, and estuary bacterial communities through a technically consistent approach. Results showed that bacterial communities in the sampled lake sediments had the highest alpha-diversity (Group B), than in sampled lake wetland sediments and estuary sediments. Proteobacteria was the most abundant (more than 30%) phyla in all the sediments. The lake sediments had more Nitrospirae (1.63%-11.75%) and Acidobacteria (3.46%-10.21%) than the lake wetland and estuary sediments, and estuary sediments had a greater abundance of the phylum Firmicutes (mean of 22.30%). Statistical analysis (LEfSe) revealed that lake wetland sediments contained greater abundances of the class Anaerolineaceae, orders Xanthomonadales, Pseudomonadales, and genera Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter. The lake sediments had a distinct community of diverse primary producers, such as phylum Acidobacteria, order Ignavibacteriales, and families Nitrospiraceae, Hydrogenophilaceae. Total phosphorus and organic matter were the main factors influencing the bacterial communities in sediments from several parts of the lake wetland and river estuary (p < .05). The novel insights into basin pollution control in plain river networks may be obtained from microbial distribution in sediments from different basin regions.
Project description:Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that use the estuary, then numerous fisheries would also be negatively affected.
Project description:The Columbia River estuary is a dynamic system in which estuarine turbidity maxima trap and extend the residence time of particles and particle-attached bacteria over those of the water and free-living bacteria. Particle-attached bacteria dominate bacterial activity in the estuary and are an important part of the estuarine food web. PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from particle-attached and free-living bacteria in the Columbia River, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean were cloned, and 239 partial sequences were determined. A wide diversity was observed at the species level within at least six different bacterial phyla, including most subphyla of the class Proteobacteria. In the estuary, most particle-attached bacterial clones (75%) were related to members of the genus Cytophaga or of the alpha, gamma, or delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. These same clones, however, were rare in or absent from either the particle-attached or the free-living bacterial communities of the river and the coastal ocean. In contrast, about half (48%) of the free-living estuarine bacterial clones were similar to clones from the river or the coastal ocean. These free-living bacteria were related to groups of cosmopolitan freshwater bacteria (beta-proteobacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and Verrucomicrobium spp.) and groups of marine organisms (gram-positive bacteria and alpha-proteobacteria [SAR11 and Rhodobacter spp.]). These results suggest that rapidly growing particle-attached bacteria develop into a uniquely adapted estuarine community and that free-living estuarine bacteria are similar to members of the river and the coastal ocean microbial communities. The high degree of diversity in the estuary is the result of the mixing of bacterial communities from the river, estuary, and coastal ocean.
Project description:We investigated the diversity and community composition of denitrifying bacteria in surface water from the Yellow River estuary. Our results indicated that the diversity of the denitrifying community in freshwater based on the nirK gene was higher than that in seawater. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggested that the bacteria community could be distributed into eight clusters (Clusters I to VIII). Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that community compositions were related to multiple environment factors, such as salinity and nitrate concentration. The results of the present study have provided a novel insight into the denitrifying community in water columns in estuaries.
Project description:Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while the glacier and lake supplied the river with water containing fewer terrestrial organisms. Also, more psychrophilic taxa were found in the community supplied by the lake. At the river mouth, the presence of dominant bacterial taxa from the lake and glacier was unnoticeable, but these taxa increased their abundances again further into the estuary. On average 23% of the estuary community consisted of indicator OTUs from different sites along the river. Environmental variables showed only weak correlations with community composition, suggesting that hydrology largely influences the observed patterns.
Project description:Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) is an important nitrate reduction process in estuarine sediments. This study reports the first investigation of DNRA in the Yellow River Estuary located in Eastern Shandong, China. Saltwater intrusion could affect the physicochemical characteristics and change the microbial community structure of sediments. In this study, the activity, abundance and community diversity of DNRA bacteria were investigated during saltwater intrusion. The slurry incubation experiments combined with isotope-tracing techniques and qPCR results showed that DNRA rates and nrfA (the functional gene of DNRA bacteria) gene abundance varied over wide ranges across different sites. DNRA rates had a positive and significant correlation with sediment organic content and extractable NH4+, while DNRA rates were weakly correlated with nrfA gene abundance. In comparison, the activities and abundance of DNRA bacteria did not change with a trend along salinity gradient. Pyrosequencing analysis of nrfA gene indicated that delta-proteobacteria was the most abundant at all sites, while epsilon-proteobacteria was hardly found. This study reveals that variability in the activities and community structure of DNRA bacteria is largely driven by changes in environmental factors and provides new insights into the characteristics of DNRA communities in estuarine ecosystems.