Project description:Ascosphaera apis is an obligate fungal pathogen of honeybee larvae that leads to chalkbrood, which causes heavy losses for the apiculture in China and many other countries. In this article, guts of 4-, 5-, 6-day-old Apis mellifera ligustica larvae challenged by A. apis (AmT1, AmT2, AmT3) and normal 4-day-old larval guts (AmCK) were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. On average, 29,196,197, 28,690,943, 29,779,715 and 30,496,725 raw reads were yielded from these four groups; an average of 29,540,895 clean reads were obtained after quality control. In addition, the mapping ratio of clean reads in treatment and control groups to the Apis mellifera genome were over 97.16%. For more insight please see "Uncovering the immune responses of Apis mellifera ligustica larval gut to Ascosphaera apis infection utilizing transcriptome sequencing" . The raw data were submitted to the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database under accession numbers: SRR4084091, SRR4084092, SRR4084095, SRR4084096, SRR4084097, SRR4084098, SRR4084099, SRR4084100, SRR4084101, SRR4084102, SRR4084093, SRR4084094.
Project description:Apis mellifera syriaca is the native honeybee subspecies of Jordan and much of the Middle East. It expresses behavioral adaptations to a regional climate with very high temperatures, nectar dearth in summer, attacks of the Oriental wasp Vespa orientalis and in most cases it is resistant to varroa mites. The Thorax control sample of A. m. syriaca in this experiment was originally collected and stored since 2001 from Wadi Ben Hammad a remote valley in the southern region of Jordan. Using morphometric and Mitochondrial DNA markers it was proved that bees from this area had show higher similarity than other samples collected from the Middle East as represented by reference samples collected in 1952 by Brother Adam. The samples L1-L5 are collected from the National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension breading apiary which was originally established for the conservation of Apis mellifera syriaca. Goal was to use the genetic information in the breeding for varroa resistant bees and to determine the successfulness of this conservation program. Project funded by USAID-MERC grant number: TA-MOU-09-M29-075. Overall design: Agilent two-color CGH experiment,Organism: Apis mellifera,Agilent Custom Apis mellifera aCGH, 2X400K(AMADID:035669) designed by Genotypic Technology Private Limited Labeling kit: Agilent Genomic DNA labeling Kit (Part Number: 5190-0453) Jordan Bee legs vs. Syriaca Bee thorax
Project description:The stinger is a very small and efficient device that allows honeybees to perform two main physiological activities: repelling enemies and laying eggs for reproduction. In this study, we explored the specific characteristics of stinger penetration, where we focused on its movements and the effects of it microstructure. The stingers of Italian honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) were grouped and fixed onto four types of cubic substrates, before pressing into different substrates. The morphological characteristics of the stinger cross-sections were analyzed before and after penetration by microscopy. Our findings suggest that the honeybee stinger undergoes helical and clockwise rotation during penetration. We also found that the helical penetration of the stinger is associated directly with the spiral distribution of the barbs, thereby confirming that stinger penetration involves an advanced microstructure rather than a simple needle-like apparatus. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of honeybee stinger penetration.
Project description:Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation.
Project description:Two microsporidians are known to infect honey bees: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Whereas population genetics data for the latter have been released in the last few years, such information is still missing for N. apis. Here we analyze the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at three single-copy loci (PTP2, PTP3 and RPB1) in a collection of Apis mellifera isolates from all over the world, naturally infected either with N. apis (N = 22) or N. ceranae (N = 23), to provide new insights into the genetic diversity, demography and evolution of N. apis, as well as to compare them with evidence from N. ceranae. Neutral variation in N. apis and N. ceranae is of the order of 1%. This amount of diversity suggests that there is no substantial differentiation between the genetic content of the two nuclei present in these parasites, and evidence for genetic recombination provides a putative mechanism for the flow of genetic information between chromosomes. The analysis of the frequency spectrum of neutral variants reveals a significant surplus of low frequency variants, particularly in N. ceranae, and suggests that the populations of the two pathogens are not in mutation-drift equilibrium and that they have experienced a population expansion. Most of the variation in both species occurs within honey bee colonies (between 62%-90% of the total genetic variance), although in N. apis there is evidence for differentiation between parasites isolated from distinct A. mellifera lineages (20%-34% of the total variance), specifically between those collected from lineages A and C (or M). This scenario is consistent with a long-term host-parasite relationship and contrasts with the lack of differentiation observed among host-lineages in N. ceranae (< 4% of the variance), which suggests that the spread of this emergent pathogen throughout the A. mellifera worldwide population is a recent event.
Project description:Apis mellifera intermissa (Buttel-Reepen, 1906) is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A.m.intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts (Ruttner, 1988), in an area of more than 2500 km long. Intermissa indicates the position through this bee races between tropical Africa and European breeds (Peyvel, 1994). The settlement area of the Tellian extends from Tunisia to Morocco. Ruttner et al (1978) describes the pure Tellian. It is a black hair of his coat poverty brings out the black color. It is a small size, there are some times light illumination on the tergites. This bee is very aggressive, nervous, sick to take part, as swarms huge fall and even produced many brood and can build up to one hundred queen cells (Le Conte, 2002). A.m.intermissa is prone to swarming, shows an aggressive behaviour and an abundant use of propolis (Ruttner 1988). This study is part of the project funded by the USAID Grant No. TA-MOU-08-M29-075. Overall design: Agilent two-color CGH experiment, Organism: Apis mellifera, Agilent Custom Apis mellifera aCGH, 2X400K (AMADID:035669) designed by Genotypic Technology Private Limited Labeling kit: Agilent Genomic DNA labeling Kit (Part Number: 5190-0453)
Project description:It is well known that factors acting on the decrease of population of honeybees, can act on the male and female reproductive system, compromising the fertility of queens and drones. While there are many studies on female fertility, only a few studies have focused on male fertility and the possible alterations of the reproductive system. The testes of 25 samples of adult drones of Apis mellifera ligustica were analyzed by histopathology using an innovative histological processing technique and the alterations that were found are here described. Most of the samples showed unaltered testes but, in some cases, samples showed degenerated seminiferous tubules, while others appeared immature. Although a limited number of samples were analyzed, the results obtained displayed that histopathological alterations of the testes exist also in honeybees and that more interest should be put to the matter, as honeybees could be considered as bioindicators for endocrine disruptors. Future studies on a larger number of samples are necessary to analyze how different environmental factors can act and induce alterations in the honeybee reproductive system.