Project description:Davidia involucrata Baill. is a rare plant endemic to China. Its exclusive evolutionary position and specific floral organs endow it with a high research value. However, a lack of genomic resources has constrained the study of D. involucrata functional genomics. Here, we report D. involucrata transcriptome reads from different floral tissues pooled from six individuals at two developmental stages using Illumina HiSeq technology and the construction of a high-quality reference gene set containing a total of 104,463 unigenes with an N50 of 1,693?bp and 48,529 high-quality coding sequences. The transcriptome data exhibited 89.24% full-length completeness with respect to the benchmarking universal single-copy (BUSCO) dataset and a PLAZA CoreGF weighted score of 98.85%. In total, 65,534 (62.73%) unigenes were functionally annotated, including 58 transcription factor families and 44,327 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). In addition, 96 known and 112 novel miRNAs were identified in the parallel small RNA sequencing of each sample. All these high-quality data could provide a valuable annotated gene set for subsequent studies of D. involucrata.
Project description:Three new ursane triterpenes, 3?,19?-dihydroxy-2-nor-urs-12-en-23,28-dioic acid-23-methyl ester (1), 19?,23-dihydroxy-3-oxo-2-nor-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), and 2,3-seco-3-methoxy-3,19?,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-2-al-28-oic acid (3), were isolated from the MeOH extract of the branch barks of Davidia involucrata, together with six known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by means of various spectroscopic analyses. The isolated triterpenes provide important evolutionary and chemotaxonomic knowledge about the monotypic genus Davidia. Five of the identified compounds showed moderate cytotoxicities against the cell proliferation of SGC-7901, MCF-7, and BEL-7404 with IC50 range from 7.26 to 47.41 ?M.
Project description:Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are highly toxic and are widespread in agricultural soils, representing risks to plant and human health. In this study, Davidia involucrata was cultivated in soil with different concentrations of Pb and Cd and sampled after 90 days. We used ANOVA to analyse the photosynthesis of D. involucrata and the ability of Pb and Cd to enrich and migrate in roots, stems and leaves. Various results are described here. 1) Under individual and combined Pb and Cd stress, the accumulation factors in the roots were greater than 1, which was significantly greater than those in the stems and leaves (P < 0.05), and the translocation factors both were less than 1. The Pb and Cd enrichment ability of D. involucrata roots was significantly higher than that of stems and leaves, and the migration ability of the two heavy metals in D. involucrata was weak. 2) The Mg-dechelatase activities of chlorophyll degradation products increased under stress due to high concentrations of Pb and Cd. However, chlorophyllase activity was higher at relatively low concentrations of the two heavy metals (P < 0.05). ?-Aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen of chlorophyll synthesis products are easily converted to uroporphyrinogen III under low concentrations of Cd, which promotes the synthesis of chlorophyll. 3) The effect of Cd stress alone on the chlorophyll concentration was not significant. Under combined stress, concentrations of Pb and Cd in the range of 400~800 mg·kg-1 and 5~20 mg·kg-1 significantly promoted an increase in photosynthetic pigments (P < 0.05). 4) Inhibition of the net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing Pb and Cd concentrations under both individual and combined stress. In addition, the root of D. involucrata had a strong absorption and fixation effect on heavy metals, thereby reducing metal toxicity and improving the tolerance of D. involucrata to heavy metals.
Project description:This study, using species distribution modeling (involving a new approach that allows for uncertainty), predicts the distribution of climatically suitable areas prevailing during the mid-Holocene, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and at present, and estimates the potential formation of new habitats in 2070 of the endangered and rare Tertiary relict tree Davidia involucrata Baill. The results regarding the mid-Holocene and the LGM demonstrate that south-central and southwestern China have been long-term stable refugia, and that the current distribution is limited to the prehistoric refugia. Given future distribution under six possible climate scenarios, only some parts of the current range of D. involucrata in the mid-high mountains of south-central and southwestern China would be maintained, while some shift west into higher mountains would occur. Our results show that the predicted suitable area offering high probability (0.5?1) accounts for an average of only 29.2% among the models predicted for the future (2070), making D. involucrata highly vulnerable. We assess and propose priority protected areas in light of climate change. The information provided will also be relevant in planning conservation of other paleoendemic species having ecological traits and distribution ranges comparable to those of D. involucrata.
Project description:The Arcto-Tertiary relict genera, Camptotheca, Davidia, and Nyssa represent deep lineages in the asterid order Cornales. Recent phylogenetic studies suggested that these genera should be placed in a newly circumscribed family, Nyssaceae. However, because these analyses were based upon a few genes, it is prudent and necessary to examine further evidence before adopting this taxonomic treatment. In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of Camptotheca acuminata, Davidia involucrata, and Nyssa sinensis. Their cp genomes ranged from 156,672 to 158,409 bp, which included 115 genes, and their genome features were highly similar to those of other species within the order Cornales. The phylogenetic relationships among the genera Camptotheca, Davidia, Nyssa, and 23 related taxa in the asterids were analyzed based on 73 protein-coding genes from the cp genomes. All of the previously recognized major clades (namely Cornales, Ericales, Campanulids, and Lamiids) in the asterids, as well as their relationships, were recovered with robust support. A clade including the genera Davidia, Nyssa, Camptotheca, and Diplopanax, was resolved as a well-supported monophyletic group, which was fully separated from the family Cornaceae by the family Hydrangeaceae. Our results provide novel evidence to support the acceptance of the family Nyssaceae outlined by the updated Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.
Project description:Five new taraxerene-type triterpenes, 2-nor-D-friedoolean-14-en-28-ol (1), 2-nor-d-friedoolean-14-en-3?,28-diol (2), 6?-hydroxy-2-nor-D-friedoolean-14-en-3,21-dione (3), 6?,11?,29-trihydroxy-D-friedoolean-14-en-3,16,21-trione (4), and 6?,23,29-trihydroxy-D-friedoolean-14-en-3,16,21-trione (5), were isolated from the MeOH extract of the branch barks of Davidia involucrata, together with five known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by means of various spectroscopic analyses. Five of the identified compounds showed moderate cytotoxicities against the cell proliferation of SGC-7901, MCF-7, and BEL-7404.
Project description:Morphogenesis in plants is usually reconstructed by scanning electron microscopy and histology of meristematic structures. These techniques are destructive and require many samples to obtain a consecutive series of states. Unfortunately, using this methodology the absolute timing of growth and complete relative initiation of organs remain obscure. To overcome this limitation, an in vivo observational method based on Epi-Illumination Light Microscopy (ELM) was developed and tested with a male inflorescence meristem (floral unit) of the handkerchief tree Davidia involucrata Baill. (Nyssaceae). We asked whether the most basal flowers of this floral unit arise in a basipetal sequence or, alternatively, are delayed in their development. The growing meristem was observed for 30 days, the longest live observation of a meristem achieved to date. The sequence of primordium initiation indicates a later initiation of the most basal flowers and not earlier or simultaneously as SEM images could suggest. D. involucrata exemplarily shows that live-ELM gives new insights into developmental processes of plants. In addition to morphogenetic questions such as the transition from vegetative to reproductive meristems or the absolute timing of ontogenetic processes, this method may also help to quantify cellular growth processes in the context of molecular physiology and developmental genetics studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dove tree (Davidia involucrata Baill.) is a rare and endangered species. Natural reproduction of dove tree is extremely difficult due to its low fecundity. Serious seed abortion is one of the key factors restraining its sexual reproduction. Understanding the inducements of seed abortion is critical for addressing the issue of offspring production and the survivability of such an endangered species. However, studies on the molecular mechanism of seed abortion in woody plants are lacking, and the dearth of genomic resources for dove tree restricts further research. RESULTS:In this study, using the Illumina platform, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of the fruit and seed in dove tree. A total of 149,099 transcripts were isolated and then assembled into 72,885 unigenes. Subsequently, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between normal and abortive seeds were screened. Genes involved in response to stress, hormone signal transduction, programmed cell death, lignin biosynthesis, and secondary cell wall biogenesis showed significant different expression levels between normal and abortive seeds. CONCLUSION:Combined results indicated that the abortive seeds were under the adversity stress, which should be controlled by the maternal plant. Maternally controlled development of integument is assumed to be a critical process for abortion regulation. MYB and WRKY transcription factors, receptor kinase and laccase are considered to be important regulators in seed abortion. Moreover, mass sequence data facilitated further molecular research on this unique species.