Project description:Six isolates of Campylobacter with similar non-standard colonial morphologies were identified during studies isolating Campylobacter from bird faeces and rivers in New Zealand. Genomic (16S rRNA gene sequencing and whole genome analysis) and phenotypic (MALDI-TOF analysis and conventional biochemical tests) showed that the isolates form a monophyletic clade with genetic relationships to Campylobacter coli/Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter peloridis/Campylobacter amoricus. They may be distinguished from other Campylobacter by their MALDI-TOF spectral pattern, their florid ?-haemolysis, their ability to grow anaerobically at 37?°C, and on 2?% NaCl nutrient agar, and their lack of hippuricase. This study shows that these isolates represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter for which the name Campylobacter novaezeelandiae sp. nov. is proposed. The presence of C. novaezeelandiae in water may be a confounder for freshwater microbial risk assessment as they may not be pathogenic for humans. The type strain is B423bT (=NZRM 4741T=ATCC TSD-167T).
Project description:A new species of the Campylobacter genus is described, isolated from the preputial mucosa of bulls (Bos taurus). The five isolates obtained exhibit characteristics of Campylobacter, being Gram-negative non-motile straight rods, oxidase positive, catalase negative and microaerophilic. Phenotypic characteristics and nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and hsp60 genes demonstrated that these isolates belong to a novel species within the genus Campylobacter. Based on hsp60 gene phylogenetic analysis, the most related species are C. ureolyticus, C. blaseri and C. corcagiensis. The whole genome sequence analysis of isolate FMV-PI01 revealed that the average nucleotide identity with other Campylobacter species was less than 75%, which is far below the cut-off for isolates of the same species. However, whole genome sequence analysis identified coding sequences highly homologous with other Campylobacter spp. These included several virulence factor coding genes related with host cell adhesion and invasion, transporters involved in resistance to antimicrobials, and a type IV secretion system (T4SS), containing virB2-virB11/virD4 genes, highly homologous to the C. fetus subsp. venerealis. The genomic G+C content of isolate FMV-PI01 was 28.3%, which is one of the lowest values reported for species of the genus Campylobacter. For this species the name Campylobacter portucalensis sp. nov. is proposed, with FMV-PI01 (= LMG 31504, = CCUG 73856) as the type strain.
Project description:Multilocus sequencing was used to compare Campylobacter sp. strains isolated from retail chicken products and humans with gastroenteritis in central Michigan. Sequence comparisons demonstrated overlapping diversity between chicken and human isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolates from clinical sources had a greater diversity of flagellin alleles and a higher rate of quinolone resistance than isolates from retail chicken products.
Project description:We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters.
Project description:Campylobacter spp. are frequently found associated with the avian intestinal tract. Most are commensals, but some can cause human campylobacteriosis. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three strains of a novel Campylobacter sp. isolated from urban birds and a rural river in New Zealand.
Project description:Oral Campylobacter species are rarely reported to cause extraoral infections. Here we present three cases of extraoral abscess caused by an oral Campylobacter sp. and a Streptococcus sp. The Campylobacter species were all isolated anaerobically and identified by sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. The cases included a breast abscess caused by Campylobacter rectus and a non-group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in a patient with lymphoma, a liver abscess caused by Campylobacter curvus and an alpha-hemolytic streptococcus in a patient with complicated ovarian cancer, and a postobstructive bronchial abscess caused by C. curvus and group C beta-hemolytic Streptococcus constellatus in a patient with lung cancer. The abscesses were drained or resected, and the patients were treated with antibiotics with full resolution of the lesions. The C. curvus cases are likely the first reported infections by this organism, and the C. rectus case represents the second such reported extraoral infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Very few closed genomes of the cyanobacteria that commonly produce toxic blooms in lakes and reservoirs are available, limiting our understanding of the properties of these organisms. A new anatoxin-a-producing member of the Nostocaceae, Anabaena sp. WA102, was isolated from a freshwater lake in Washington State, USA, in 2013 and maintained in non-axenic culture. RESULTS:The Anabaena sp. WA102 5.7 Mbp genome assembly has been closed with long-read, single-molecule sequencing and separately a draft genome assembly has been produced with short-read sequencing technology. The closed and draft genome assemblies are compared, showing a correlation between long repeats in the genome and the many gaps in the short-read assembly. Anabaena sp. WA102 encodes anatoxin-a biosynthetic genes, as does its close relative Anabaena sp. AL93 (also introduced in this study). These strains are distinguished by differences in the genes for light-harvesting phycobilins, with Anabaena sp. AL93 possessing a phycoerythrocyanin operon. Biologically relevant structural variants in the Anabaena sp. WA102 genome were detected only by long-read sequencing: a tandem triplication of the anaBCD promoter region in the anatoxin-a synthase gene cluster (not triplicated in Anabaena sp. AL93) and a 5-kbp deletion variant present in two-thirds of the population. The genome has a large number of mobile elements (160). Strikingly, there was no synteny with the genome of its nearest fully assembled relative, Anabaena sp. 90. CONCLUSION:Structural and functional genome analyses indicate that Anabaena sp. WA102 has a flexible genome. Genome closure, which can be readily achieved with long-read sequencing, reveals large scale (e.g., gene order) and local structural features that should be considered in understanding genome evolution and function.
Project description:High Campylobacter prevalence during early childhood has been associated with stunting and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), especially in low resource settings. This study assessed the prevalence, diversity, abundance, and co-occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in stools from children in a rural area of eastern Ethiopia and their association with microbiome, diarrhea, and EED in children. Stool samples (n = 100) were collected from randomly selected children (age range: 360-498 days) in five kebeles in Haramaya District, Ethiopia. Diarrhea, compromised gut permeability, and gut inflammation were observed in 48, 45, and 57% of children, respectively. Campylobacter prevalence and species diversity were assessed using PCR and meta-total RNA sequencing (MeTRS). The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the children's stools was 50% (41-60%) by PCR and 88% (80-93.6%) by MeTRS (P < 0.01). Further, seven Campylobacter species (Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter sp. RM6137, uncultured Campylobacter sp., and Campylobacter sp. RM12175) were detected by MeTRS in at least 40% of children stools in high abundance (>1.76-log read per million per positive stool sample). Four clusters of Campylobacter species (5-12 species per cluster) co-occurred in the stool samples, suggesting that Campylobacter colonization of children may have occurred through multiple reservoirs or from a reservoir in which several Campylobacter species may co-inhabit. No associations between Campylobacter spp., EED, and diarrhea were detected in this cross-sectional study; however, characteristic microbiome profiles were identified based on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., EED severity, and diarrhea. Forty-seven bacterial species were correlated with Campylobacter, and 13 of them also correlated with gut permeability, gut inflammation and/or EED severity. Forty-nine species not correlated with Campylobacter were correlated with gut permeability, gut inflammation, EED severity and/or diarrhea. This study demonstrated that (1) in addition to C. jejuni and C. coli, multiple non-thermophilic Campylobacter spp. (i.e., Campylobacter hyointestinalis, Campylobacter fetus, and Campylobacter concisus) were frequently detected in the children's stools and (2) the Campylobacter, gut permeability, gut inflammation, EED severity, and diarrhea were associated with characteristic microbiome composition. Additional spatial and longitudinal studies are needed to identify environmental reservoirs and sources of infection of children with disparate Campylobacter species and to better define their associations with EED in low-income countries.
Project description:Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are responsible for 400 million to 500 million cases of enteric disease each year and represent the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite its global importance, Campylobacter vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of animal models that recapitulate human disease pathogenesis. Here, we describe a naturally occurring Campylobacter-associated diarrhea model in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques. Using this model, we developed novel next-generation H2O2-based Campylobacter vaccines that induced strong antibacterial antibodies to multiple Campylobacter proteins including flagellin and provided up to 83% protection against severe C. coli-associated diarrhea. Whole-genome sequencing of circulating Campylobacter strains revealed little to no homology within lipooligosaccharide or capsular polysaccharide loci with the Campylobacter vaccine strains used in these studies, indicating that vaccine-mediated immunity was not restricted to a single homologous serotype. Together, these results demonstrate an important advance in vaccine development and a new approach to reducing Campylobacter-associated enteric disease.