Project description:Achromobacter xylosoxidans, an opportunistic pathogen, is responsible for various nosocomial and community-acquired infections. We isolated phiAxp-3, an N4-like bacteriophage that infects A. xylosoxidans, from hospital waste and studied its genomic and biological properties. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that, with a 67-nm diameter icosahedral head and a 20-nm non-contractile tail, phiAxp-3 has features characteristic of Podoviridae bacteriophages (order Caudovirales). With a burst size of 9000 plaque-forming units and a latent period of 80 min, phiAxp-3 had a host range limited to only four A. xylosoxidans strains of the 35 strains that were tested. The 72,825?bp phiAxp-3 DNA genome, with 416-bp terminal redundant ends, contains 80 predicted open reading frames, none of which are related to virulence or drug resistance. Genome sequence comparisons place phiAxp-3 more closely with JWAlpha and JWDelta Achromobacter phages than with other N4 viruses. Using proteomics, we identified 25 viral proteins from purified phiAxp-3 particles. Notably, investigation of the phage phiAxp-3 receptor on the surface of the host cell revealed that lipopolysaccharide serves as the receptor for the adsorption of phage phiAxp-3. Our findings advance current knowledge about A. xylosoxidans phages in an age where alternative therapies to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria are urgently needed.
Project description:The genome of Achromobacter xylosoxidans MN001, a strain isolated from sputum derived from an adult cystic fibrosis patient, was sequenced using combined single-molecule real-time and Illumina sequencing. Assembly of the complete genome resulted in a 5,876,039-bp chromosome, representing the smallest A. xylosoxidans genome sequenced to date.
Project description:Bacteriophages have recently been considered as an alternative biocontrol tool because of the widespread occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Herein, we isolated a virulent bacteriophage (phiAxp-1) from a water sample of the Bohai sea of China that specifically infects A. xylosoxidans. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that phage phiAxp-1 belongs to the Siphoviridae. We sequenced the genome of phiAxp-1, which comprises 45,045?bp with 64 open reading frames. Most of the proteins encoded by phiAxp-1 have no similarity to sequences in the public databases. Twenty-one proteins with assigned functions share weak homology with those of other dsDNA bacteriophages infecting diverse hosts, such as Burkholderia phage KL1, Pseudomonas phage 73, Pseudomonas phage vB_Pae-Kakheti25, Pseudomonas phage vB_PaeS_SCH_Ab26, Acinetobacter phage IME_AB3 and Achromobacter phage JWX. The genome can be divided into different clusters for the head and tail structure, DNA replication and mazG. The sequence and genomic organization of bacteriophage phiAxp-1 are clearly distinct from other known Siphoviridae phages; therefore, we propose that it is a member of a novel genus of the Siphoviridae family. Furthermore, one-step growth curve and stability studies of the phage were performed, and the specific receptor of phiAxp-1 was identified as the lipopolysaccharide of A. xylosoxidans.
Project description:Several members of the Gram-negative environmental bacterial genus Achromobacter are associated with serious infections, with Achromobacter xylosoxidans being the most common. Despite their pathogenic potential, little is understood about these intrinsically drug-resistant bacteria and their role in disease, leading to suboptimal diagnosis and management. Here, we performed comparative genomics for 158 Achromobacter spp. genomes to robustly identify species boundaries, reassign several incorrectly speciated taxa and identify genetic sequences specific for the genus Achromobacter and for A. xylosoxidans. Next, we developed a Black Hole Quencher probe-based duplex real-time PCR assay, Ac-Ax, for the rapid and simultaneous detection of Achromobacter spp. and A. xylosoxidans from both purified colonies and polymicrobial clinical specimens. Ac-Ax was tested on 119 isolates identified as Achromobacter spp. using phenotypic or genotypic methods. In comparison to these routine diagnostic methods, the duplex assay showed superior identification of Achromobacter spp. and A. xylosoxidans, with five Achromobacter isolates failing to amplify with Ac-Ax confirmed to be different genera according to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Ac-Ax quantified both Achromobacter spp. and A. xylosoxidans down to ~110 genome equivalents and detected down to ~12 and ~1 genome equivalent(s), respectively. Extensive in silico analysis, and laboratory testing of 34 non-Achromobacter isolates and 38 adult cystic fibrosis sputa, confirmed duplex assay specificity and sensitivity. We demonstrate that the Ac-Ax duplex assay provides a robust, sensitive and cost-effective method for the simultaneous detection of all Achromobacter spp. and A. xylosoxidans and will facilitate the rapid and accurate diagnosis of this important group of pathogens.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Multi-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans has been recognized as an emerging pathogen causing nosocomially acquired infections during the last years. Phages as natural opponents could be an alternative to fight such infections. Bacteriophages against this opportunistic pathogen were isolated in a recent study. This study shows a molecular analysis of two podoviruses and reveals first insights into the genomic structure of Achromobacter phages so far. METHODS: Growth curve experiments and adsorption kinetics were performed for both phages. Adsorption and propagation in cells were visualized by electron microscopy. Both phage genomes were sequenced with the PacBio RS II system based on single molecule, real-time (SMRT) technology and annotated with several bioinformatic tools. To further elucidate the evolutionary relationships between the phage genomes, a phylogenomic analysis was conducted using the genome Blast Distance Phylogeny approach (GBDP). RESULTS: In this study, we present the first detailed analysis of genome sequences of two Achromobacter phages so far. Phages JWAlpha and JWDelta were isolated from two different waste water treatment plants in Germany. Both phages belong to the Podoviridae and contain linear, double-stranded DNA with a length of 72329 bp and 73659 bp, respectively. 92 and 89 putative open reading frames were identified for JWAlpha and JWDelta, respectively, by bioinformatic analysis with several tools. The genomes have nearly the same organization and could be divided into different clusters for transcription, replication, host interaction, head and tail structure and lysis. Detailed annotation via protein comparisons with BLASTP revealed strong similarities to N4-like phages. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the genomes of Achromobacter phages JWAlpha and JWDelta and comparisons of different gene clusters with other phages revealed that they might be strongly related to other N4-like phages, especially of the Escherichia group. Although all these phages show a highly conserved genomic structure and partially strong similarities at the amino acid level, some differences could be identified. Those differences, e.g. the existence of specific genes for replication or host interaction in some N4-like phages, seem to be interesting targets for further examination of function and specific mechanisms, which might enlighten the mechanism of phage establishment in the host cell after infection.
Project description:A novel Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteriophage, phiAxp-2, was isolated from hospital sewage in China. The phage was morphologically and microbiologically characterized, and its one-step growth curve, host range, genomic sequence, and receptor were determined. Its morphology showed that phiAxp-2 belongs to the family Siphoviridae. Microbiological characterization demonstrated that pH 7 is most suitable for phage phiAxp-2; its titer decreased when the temperature exceeded 50?°C; phiAxp-2 is sensitive to ethanol and isopropanol; and the presence of calcium and magnesium ions is necessary to accelerate cell lysis and improve the formation of phiAxp-2 plaques. Genomic sequencing and a bioinformatic analysis showed that phage phiAxp-2 is a novel bacteriophage, consisting of a circular, double-stranded 62,220-bp DNA molecule with a GC content of 60.11% that encodes 86 putative open reading frames (ORFs). The lipopolysaccharide of A. xylosoxidans is involved in the adsorption of phiAxp-2.
Project description:Achromobacter spanius UQ283 is a soilborne bacterium found to exhibit plant growth-promoting and disease-suppressing attributes in several plant species. Accordingly, we used long-read sequencing to determine its complete genome sequence. The assembled genome will aid in understanding the multifaceted interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, pathogens, and plants.
Project description:Bacteria have evolved several defense systems against phage predation. Here, we report the 6,500,439-bp complete genome sequence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage-resistant variant PA1RG. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and de novo assembly revealed a single contig with 320-fold sequence coverage.